Bhagavad-gītā 7.1 , Hong Kong , 1975-01-25
Nitāi: "Now hear, O son of Pṛthā [Arjuna], how by practicing yoga in full consciousness of Me, with mind attached to Me, you can know Me in full, free from doubt."
mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha
yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ
asaṁśayaṁ samagraṁ māṁ
yathā jñāsyasi tac chṛṇu
Arjuna is hearing from Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa is speaking to Arjuna directly. How fortunate is Arjuna, that he is directly hearing from Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Here, therefore, it is said, bhagavān uvāca. Bhagavān. Not ordinary teacher, a human being, or a living being, but Bhagavān.
There are two living beings. One is Bhagavān, and the other is the living being as we are. That is the Vedic version. Nityo nityānāṁ cetanaś cetanānām [Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13]. Bhagavān means He is also living being. He is not nirākāra. When we say bhagavān nirākāra, that means either we have no knowledge of Bhagavān or nirākāra means He is not a form like us. Our form and Kṛṣṇa's form---different. Kṛṣṇa is complete spiritual, divine, and we are, at the present moment, although we have got our spiritual form within this body, but because we have no vision of the spiritual form, we are taking this body as our form. This is called illusion.
The spiritual form is there. That is realization of Brahman, ahaṁ brahmāsmi. The Vedic injunction is just to understand that I am not this body. If anyone is under the concept of this body---"I am this body," "I am Hindu," "I am Muslim," "I am Christian," "I am American," "I am Indian"---in this way, with the bodily concept of life, we are thinking we are different from one another. At the same time, we desire that there may be unity of the human society, of the human being, and we can live peacefully. That is very desirable thing. That is the thing we require to understand. But so long we are on the bodily concept of life, this goal cannot be achieved.
Unless we have got spiritual understanding, we'll have to present ourself with this bodily designation. This is designation. "I am Hindu," "I am Muslim," "I am Christian," "I am Bengali," "I am Sindhi," "I am Punjabi," "I am American," these are all bodily conception of life. And so long we are in the bodily concepts of our life, we are no better than the animals, cats and dogs. That is the statement of Vedic literature.
sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu bhauma ijya-dhīḥ
yat-tīrtha-buddhiḥ salile na karhicij
janeṣv abhijñeṣu sa eva go-kharaḥ
Go means cow, and kharaḥ means asses. So yasya ātma-buddhiḥ: "A person who thinks himself ātma-buddhiḥ, as 'I am this body...' " Yasyātma-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke. This body is made of tri-dhātu, three dhātus = kapha, pitta, vāyu. "So this kapha, pitta, vāyu, this body, I am not this body." This is self-realization. "I am different from this bag of flesh and bone." When we realize completely, that is the first point of self-realization.
In the Second Chapter of the Bhagavad-gītā Kṛṣṇa has begun the philosophy of Bhagavad-gītā from this point, that "I am not this body." This is the beginning of spiritual knowledge. So long we are entrapped with the bodily concept of life, there is no question of spiritual life. That is the beginning. What is that? Dehino 'smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ [Bg. 2.13]. The soul, the spirit soul, dehī, one who possesses the deha, body... Just like gṛhī. Gṛhī means one who remains in a home. He is called gṛhī, gṛhastha. Gṛhastha---gṛha, the room or the apartment, and stha, who is staying there with husband, wife, children, he is called gṛhastha. But the gṛhī is not the person who is staying within the gṛha. He is different from the gṛha. Similarly, dehī and deha. Deha means this body, and dehī means who lives within the body. That is first of all explained. Dehinaḥ asmin dehe: "In this body there is the resident of the body." That is soul. That is the beginning of spiritual knowledge. Dehino 'smin yathā dehe kaumāraṁ yauvanaṁ jarā, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ [Bg. 2.13].
So dehī... Just like we change from one place to another, from one apartment to another. That you have got experience. Similarly, in the material condition of life we, the proprietor of the body, we are changing, tathā dehāntara-prāptiḥ, from one body to another. This is the first knowledge, preliminary knowledge. People have no preliminary knowledge even. Everyone is thinking, "I am this body" = "I am Indian," "I am American," "I am Hindu," "I am Muslim," "I am brāhmaṇa," "I am kṣatriya." It is not this body I am. I am put into this body under certain circumstances. Otherwise I am not this body.
So this realization can be possible by yoga practice, mystic yoga. So there are many yogīs. Generally, the haṭha-yogīs or aṣṭāṅga-yogīs who try to understand himself by mystic yoga process... But this has been summarized in the Bhagavad-gītā at the end of the Sixth Chapter. I am just trying to read from the Seventh Chapter. So at the end of the Sixth Chapter Bhagavān says, yoginām api sarveṣām: "There are many yogīs. So out of all the yogīs..." Yoginām api sarveṣām. Sarveṣām means "of all." There are different yogīs. Yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gata, mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā [Bg. 6.47]. The yogic practice is to meditate upon the Supreme Personality of Godhead Viṣṇu within the heart. Dhyānāvasthita-tad-gatena manasā paśyanti yaṁ yoginaḥ [SB 12.13.1]. Those who are yogīs, they see the Paramātmā, and the Paramātmā is in everyone's heart. So they want to find out where is Paramātmā within the heart. This is sum and substance of yoga system.
So yoga means connecting link. We are... Our link is now separated. Somehow or other, we are thinking separate from God. But actually that is not the fact. We are interlinked always with God, with Kṛṣṇa. But some way or other, there is some difficulty. That is called māyā. Just like we are living under the sunshine always. At night there is some difficulty to see the sun, but sun is there, and I am also here. That's a fact. Everyone knows. Now, the earthly planet has turned around. The sun is on the back side of this earth. It is in America now. So sun is there, the American people are seeing sun, but on account of the different position of this earth we cannot see the sun. That does not mean there is no sun. The sunshine is always existing. It is shadowed by this earthly planet. Similarly, when... Our relationship with God, or Kṛṣṇa, is always existing, but when there is some intervention, māyā, then we think, "There is no God" or "I am God," like that.
So this misconception of life, that "I am God," "There is no God..." Atheists and voidists, they say like that. The voidists, they say śūnyavādi. They say, "There is no God." And the impersonalists, they say that there is God, but there is no head, there is no leg, there is no hand, there is no mouth, there is no, no, no... Ultimately, what is their God? If God has no head, no leg, no body, no mouth, then what is that God? That is also another way of explaining God as zero. The voidists, they directly say, "There is no God. We don't believe in God." That is understandable. But this impersonal explanation of God, that is not understandable. What is this? "God has no leg, neither God has no head, God has no hand, God has no mouth." Then what is that God? They cannot say.
So this impersonalists and the voidists, they are of the same group, denying the existence of God. But that is not the fact. There is God. The devotees know there is God, and He is Bhagavān. God is called Bhagavān. Therefore although it is said here... Bhagavad-gītā is spoken by Kṛṣṇa, everyone knows. But in some places in the Bhagavad-gītā it is described as bhagavān uvāca. Bhagavān and Kṛṣṇa---the same person. Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28]. Bhagavān, there is a definition of the word bhagavān.
vīryasya yaśasaḥ śriyaḥ
ṣaṇṇāṁ itī bhaga ganā
[Viṣṇu Purāṇa 6.5.47]
Bhaga, we understand the word bhāgyavān, bhāgya. The bhāgya, bhāgyavān, this word comes from bhaga. Bhaga means opulence. Opulence means riches. How one man can be opulent? If he has got money, if he has got intelligence, if he has got beauty, if he has got reputation, if he has got knowledge, if he has got renunciation---this is the meaning of Bhagavān.
So when we speak "Bhagavān," this Bhagavān, the Parameśvara... Īśvara, Parameśvara; ātmā, Paramātmā; Brahman, Para-brahman---there is two words. One is ordinary, and the other is parama, supreme. Just like in our cooking process we can cook varieties of rice. Rice is there. The varieties of names are there = anna, paramānna, puṣpānna, kicoranna[?], like that. So the supreme anna is called paramānna. Param means the supreme. Anna, the rice, is there, but it has become supreme. Ordinary rice is not called supreme rice. This is also rice. And when you prepare rice with kṣīra, means milk, and other nice ingredients, it is called paramānna. Similarly, the symptoms of living entities and Bhagavān---one is practically the same. Bhagavān... We have got this body; Bhagavān has got this body. Bhagavān is also living being; we are also living being. Bhagavān has got creative energy; we have also creative energy. But the difference is He is very great, eko yo bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān. When Bhagavān creates this whole universe, He does not require anyone's help. He creates the sky. From the sky there is sound; from the sound there is air; from the air there is fire; from fire there is water; and from water the earth is there.
So Bhagavān creates by His energy. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca, bhinnā me prakṛtir aṣṭadhā [Bg. 7.4]. He can create. Just like, take for example, water. Water... Sometimes we also create water by perspiration. Perspiration, we may create one satap[?], one ounce or two ounce water, or say four ounce, five ounce. So similarly, this same creative power is of Kṛṣṇa, but He can create millions of Pacific Ocean. The process is the same. We can create a little thing. We have created this airplanes; that is also flying in the sky. And there are millions and millions of planets; that is also flying and floating in the sky. So that is the difference. We can create a small airplane, airship, and flying in the sky, and Bhagavān has created innumerable universes flying in the sky, and He has created the sky also. The creative energy is there. You have got the creative energy, but you cannot create another planet which is floating in the sky. That is not possible. That is the difference between living entity and Bhagavān. The similarity is there. We are creating big, big factories, big, big cities, and Bhagavān is creating big, big universes. How He is creating, that is also stated in the śāstra. Yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ [Bs. 5.48]. Bhagavān is creating by His breathing process innumerable universes. So we can create a skyscraper building, and we become very proud, that "How we have become advanced. We have created the skyscraper building." But we do not see that Bhagavān is creating millions of planets where millions and millions of skyscraper buildings are standing. This is understanding of Bhagavān.
So how we can understand Bhagavān's energy, how we can understand His creative energy, and what is the potency of Bhagavān, how He is doing that---everything---that is also a great science. That is called Kṛṣṇa science. Kṛṣṇa-tattva-jñāna. Yei kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā, sei guru haya [Cc. Madhya 8.128]. Caitanya Mahāprabhu says that who is guru. Guru means yei kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā sei guru haya: "Anyone who knows Kṛṣṇa, he is guru." Guru cannot be manufactured. Anyone who knows about Kṛṣṇa as far as possible... We cannot know..., we cannot know Kṛṣṇa cent percent. That is not possible. Kṛṣṇa's energies are so multi. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate [Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]. One energy is working in one way, another energy is working another way. But they are all Kṛṣṇa's energy. Parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate. Mayādhyakṣeṇa prakṛtiḥ sūyate sa-carācaram [Bg. 9.10]. The prakṛti... We see this flower is coming out of the nature, and not only flower, so many things are coming out---through the seed. The rose seed, there will be rose tree. Bela seed, there will be bela tree. So how it is happening? The same ground, the same water, and seed also looks like the same, but it is coming out differently. How it is possible? That is called parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate svābhāvikī jñāna. The ordinary man or the so-called scientist, they say, "It is nature producing." But they do not know what is nature, who is supervising the natural activities, the material nature, how it is working.
That is said in the Bhagavad-gītā = mayādhyakṣeṇa [Bg. 9.10]. Kṛṣṇa says, "Under My superintendence the nature is working." That is the fact. Nature, the matter... Matter cannot combine together automatically. These skyscraper building, they are created with matter, but the matter has not come to become skyscraper building automatically. That is not possible. There is a small, teeny spirit soul, the engineer or the architect, who takes the matter and decorate it and creates a skyscraper building. That is our experience. So how we can say that the matter is working automatically? Matter does not work automatically. It requires higher brain, higher manipulation, therefore higher order. Just like in this material world we have got the highest order, the sun, movement of the sun, the heat energy, light energy of the sun. So how it is being utilized? That is stated in the śāstra = yasyājñayā bhramati sambhṛta-kāla-cakro govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi. This sun planet is also a planet like this planet. As in this planet there may be many presidents, but formerly there was one president only, so similarly, in each planet there is a president. In the sun planet we receive this knowledge from Bhagavad-gītā. Kṛṣṇa says, imaṁ vivasvate yogaṁ proktavān aham avyayam [Bg. 4.1] = "I first of all spoke this science of Bhagavad-gītā to Vivasvān." Vivasvān means the president of the sun globe, and his son is Manu. This is the time. This time is going on. It is called Vaivasvata Manu period. Vaivasvata means from Vivasvān, the son of Vivasvān. He is called Vaivasvata Manu.
So everything is there in the śāstra. So it is our duty, the human life, to get knowledge from śāstra. That is, means Veda. Veda means knowledge. Get knowledge from the standard Veda. Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum evābhigacchet [MU 1.2.12] = "In order to understand that Vedic knowledge, one has to go to the proper master, teacher." Tad viddhi praṇipātena paripraśnena sevayā [Bg. 4.34]. These are the things. Now, if you want to know Kṛṣṇa, Bhagavān... Here it is said, bhagavān uvāca, Bhagavān says, mayy āsakta, mayi āsakta. Therefore if you become attached... We have got attachment for so many things. But if we transfer that attachment to Kṛṣṇa, then, Kṛṣṇa says, mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ. You have to adopt this yogic process, meditation. Meditation... Unless you have got love for somebody, attachment for somebody, how you can think of him always? That is not possible. By force I cannot say that "You think of this thing or this man." That is not possible. If I have got attachment for a certain thing or a certain person, then we can think of that person or that thing. That is called yoga, connecting always, keeping linked always. That is called yoga. So if you want to know perfectly or as far as you can understand through your senses, mayy āsakta-manāḥ, then you transfer your attachment to Kṛṣṇa. This is the advice. If we want to know Kṛṣṇa, then we have to transfer our attachment to Kṛṣṇa. Mayy āsakta-manāḥ. The mind should be attached to Kṛṣṇa.
Now, Kṛṣṇa is there. We have got Kṛṣṇa's picture, Kṛṣṇa's photo, Kṛṣṇa's temple, so many Kṛṣṇa's. They are not fictitious. They are not imagination, as the Māyāvādī philosopher thinks, that "You can imagine in your mind." No. God cannot be imagined. That is another foolishness. How you can imagine God? Then God become subject matter of your imagination. He is no substance. That is not God. What is imagined, that is not God. God is present before you = Kṛṣṇa. He comes here on this planet. Tadātmānaṁ sṛjāmy aham, sambhavāmi yuge yuge [Bg. 4.7–8]. So those who have seen God, you take information from them.
upadekṣyanti te jñānaṁ
Tattva-darśinaḥ. Unless you have seen, how you can give information of the truth to others? So God is seen, not only seen in the history. In the history, when Kṛṣṇa was present on this planet, the history of Battle of Kurukṣetra where this Bhagavad-gītā was spoken, that is a historical fact. So we can see through history also Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa and through śāstra also. Śāstra-cakṣusā. Just like at the present moment Kṛṣṇa is not physically present, but we understand through śāstra what is Kṛṣṇa.
So śāstra-cakṣusā. Śāstra cak... Either you take direct perception or through the śāstra. Through the śāstra the perception is better than direct perception. Therefore our knowledge, those who are following the Vedic principle, their knowledge is derived from the Vedas. They do not manufacture any knowledge. If one thing is understood by the evidence of the Vedas, that is fact. So Kṛṣṇa is understood through the Vedas. Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ [Bg. 15.15]. That is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. You cannot imagine of Kṛṣṇa. If some rascal says that "I am imagining," that is rascaldom. You have to see Kṛṣṇa through the Vedas. Vedaiś ca sarvair aham eva vedyaḥ. That is the purpose of studying Vedas. Therefore it is called Vedānta. Kṛṣṇa's knowledge is Vedānta. Anta means the end, the last word, last word. So last word... What is the last word of Vedic knowledge? Brahmeti paramātmeti bhagavān iti śabdyate [SB 1.2.11]. First of all knowledge of the Brahman, then Paramātmā, then last knowledge is Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28]. Janmādy asya yataḥ [SB 1.1.1]. Kṛṣṇa says, ahaṁ sarvasya prabhavaḥ [Bg. 10.8]. Sarvasya, or Brahman, Paramātmā, and Bhagavān. The Bhagavān is the origin of Paramātmā and Brahman. Brahmaṇaḥ ahaṁ pratiṣṭhā.
So in this way we have to understand what is Kṛṣṇa, not superficially. Even superficially you understand---even you do not understand---if you accept Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme, then either you read Vedas or not Vedas, the same thing, because you have come to the conclusion. Suppose if there is fire. So the fire burns. So if you come to fire, if you have felt the heat and light, then either you know chemically what is fire, wherefrom it is coming... You know or may not know, but because you have come to the fire, the action of the fire will be perceived by you. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa says either you are very learned scholar or not, whatever you may be, if you simply concentrate your mind and attachment for Kṛṣṇa... Mayy āsakta-manāḥ. Āsakta means attachment. And mind, manas means mind. So if you practice this yoga... This is yoga. Mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha yogaṁ yuñjan. This is yoga.
Yes, I was speaking that when Kṛṣṇa explained yoga system, He concluded,
śraddhāvān bhajate yo māṁ
sa me yuktatamo mataḥ
Anyone... There are hundreds and thousands varieties of yogīs. The first-class yogī is he who is always thinking of Kṛṣṇa. He is first-class yogī. Mayy āsakta... Yoginām api sarveṣāṁ mad-gatenāntar-ātmanā. Antar-ātmanā is in the core of heart. He is keeping the picture of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is there, but because we cannot see now in the present condition, so we think the formation of Kṛṣṇa, either from picture or from the Deity in the temple, and keep it within your heart always and think of Him---you become first-class yogī. Yoginām api sarveṣām. And if you continue this yoga system, yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ...
So how you can practice this yoga? This yoga system is that yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ, and in the previous verse it is said that mad-gatena antar-ātmanā. If you keep Kṛṣṇa always within your heart in this way, mayy āsakta-manāḥ, the mind being..., thus being attached, mayy āsakta, this is yoga. This yoga has to be practiced, how to keep Kṛṣṇa always within your heart. That is first-class yoga. Mayy āsakta-manāḥ pārtha. Yogam, this yogaṁ yuñjan mad-āśrayaḥ. And this yoga practice can be possible by the process mad-āśrayaḥ. Mad-āśrayaḥ means "one who has taken shelter of Me." Mat means "Me," and āśrayaḥ means to take shelter. That means devotee. Or mad-āśrayaḥ means one who has taken the shelter of a devotee. A devotee is also mad-āśrayaḥ. A devotee means who has taken shelter of the lotus feet of Kṛṣṇa completely. So either you... Of course, it is not possible to take the shelter of Kṛṣṇa directly. That is not possible. May be possible by Kṛṣṇa's special mercy, but general process is you have to go through the mercy or process of accepting a guru. Tad-vijñānārthaṁ sa gurum eva abhigacchet [MU 1.2.12]. Guru. And who is guru? Yei kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā sei guru haya [Cc. Madhya 8.128]. There is no difficulty to find out. Sometimes they plead that "Whom I can accept as guru?" That is... Caitanya Mahāprabhu has cleared = ye kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā sei guru haya. You haven't got any trouble to find out guru. Anyone who knows about Kṛṣṇa, he is guru.
So mad-āśrayaḥ means directly we cannot take shelter of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore, one who has taken shelter of Kṛṣṇa, one who knows the science of Kṛṣṇa, one who knows what is Kṛṣṇa---you take shelter of that person. Mad-āśrayaḥ. Taking shelter, ādau gurv-āśrayam, that is the process of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. Ādau, in the beginning, you have to take shelter of guru. Ādau gurv-āśrayaṁ sad-dharma-pṛcchā: "Then you inquire from him about Kṛṣṇa." Sad-dharma-pṛcchā, sādhu-mārgānugamanam: "Then follow the footstep of big, big devotees." Just like Prahlāda Mahārāja, a great devotee; Kapiladeva, a great devotee; and similarly, Brahmā, a great devotee. Lord Śiva is great devotee; Nārada Muni, a great devotee. There are... Especially twelve names are given in the śāstras, that we have to follow them. That is called sampradāya. Sampradāya means coming in disciplic succession from the original guru. Just like Kṛṣṇa instructed Brahmā, so Brahmā is one of the gurus. So Brahma-sampradāya there is. Brahma-sampradāya. Our this Gauḍīya-sampradāya belongs to that Brahma-sampradāya. In this way there is Rāmānuja-sampradāya. This sampradāya comes from the goddess of fortune, Lakṣmījī, Śrī-sampradāya. In this way there are twelve mahājanas. They are stated in the śāstra. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.186]. We have to take the path of mahājana, and the purpose is how to increase your attachment for Kṛṣṇa. This is the business. And this business you can occupy yourself in this human form of life.
In other form of life... We are changing our form of life from one body to another, but if we want to understand God... That is essential. So long we do not understand God, so long we do not go back to home, back to Godhead, our struggle for existence will continue. Manaḥ ṣaṣṭhānīndriyāṇi prakṛti-sthāni karṣati [Bg. 15.7]. They struggle. Everyone struggles hard to become happy. But that is not possible. Simply searching after, searching after happiness, when time comes = "Finished. Your business is finished. Now get out." That is called death. So death is also Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says in the Bhagavad-gītā, mṛtyuḥ sarva-haraś cāham [Bg. 10.34]. Mṛtyu, Kṛṣṇa, comes as death. During your lifetime, if you do not understand Kṛṣṇa consciousness, this Kṛṣṇa will come as death and take away everything what you have got. Sarva-haraḥ. Then your body, your family, your country, your bank, everything business, business---finished. "Now you have to accept another body. You forget about all these things." This is going on. Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19].
So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is the greatest benefactory movement to the human society because it is giving information to the human society that "You make your life... You have got this nice human form of body. Make this life perfect by understanding Kṛṣṇa." This is the opportunity. You may think of independent of Kṛṣṇa. You are not independent of Kṛṣṇa. You are under the rules and regulation of Kṛṣṇa, because we are under the rules and regulation of material nature. But what is this material nature? Material nature is agent of Kṛṣṇa. Mama māyā. Kṛṣṇa says, mama māyā duratyayā. You cannot surmount the stringent laws of material ways. And this māyā is Kṛṣṇa's māyā. Therefore the conclusion is given by Kṛṣṇa, mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṁ taranti te [Bg. 7.14]. If you want to get out of the māyā's activities, prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi [Bg. 3.27], then you have to take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. There is no way out. This is a scientific movement. Anyone, intelligent person, any thoughtful person, he must take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Otherwise he is doomed.
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Hare Kṛṣṇa. Jaya Prabhupāda. [end]