Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 3.26.4 , Bombay , 1974-12-16
Nitāi: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. [devotees repeat] [leads chanting of verse, etc.]
daivīṁ guṇamayīṁ vibhuḥ
"As His pastime, that Supreme Personality of Godhead, the greatest of the great, accepted the subtle material energy, which is invested with the three material modes of nature and which is related with Viṣṇu."
daivīṁ guṇamayīṁ vibhuḥ
So Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, as He says that sambhavāmy ātma-māyayā [Bg. 4.6]. Sambhavāmy ātma-māyayā. Kṛṣṇa and the living entities, both of them are the same quality, but when the living entities come in this material world, he is forced by the prakṛti, by the material nature. But when Kṛṣṇa comes, He is not forced, but by His free will, yadṛcchayā upagatām... Yadṛcchayaivopagatām abhyapadyata līlayā.
Sometimes the Māyāvādī philosophers, they also take the living entities within this material world as līlā. That is not līlā. Līlā refers to the pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Never... Nobody says that the living entity has come in this material world for līlā. At least, the Vaiṣṇava philosophers do not agree that. It is contradictory. Kṛṣṇa said that "When I come..."
glānir bhavati bhārata
We should not accept Kṛṣṇa's coming within this material world and our coming in this material in the same process. Kṛṣṇa comes as He is. He does not change. And because He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Almighty, even if He comes within this material world, the material qualities do not affect Him. That is īśanam. Īśanam.
Just like a physician, a doctor, a medical man, he goes to the hospital to treat the infected patients. So he is not affected by the infection. He has got such precautionary measures, or he is so equipped with, that he is not infected with the disease. Those who are weak... That is stated in the Bhāgavatam = etad īśanam īśasya [SB 1.11.38]. That is īśa. Īśa means the controller. Rather, if something infectious come in touch with the Supreme Personality of Godhead, it becomes purified. Tejīyasāṁ na doṣāya [SB 10.33.29], it is said. Another example can be given = just like the sun. The sunshine absorbs water even from urine or any infectious place. Any filthy place, the sun absorbs the water. But the sun is not infected, because it is very powerful. Similarly, if you try to absorb water from the urine, then you will be infected. That is called etad īśasya īśanam. Even those who are devotees, they are not infected by the three modes of material nature. We have many times repeated this verse of Bhagavad-gītā:
bhakti-yogena yah sevate
sa guṇān samatītyaitān
So even ordinary living entities, those who are devotees, they are not infected by the three modes of material nature. How we can expect the Supreme Lord can be infected by the three modes of material nature? That is not possible. This is not... Even from ordinary argument, it cannot be accepted.
Kṛṣṇa or Kṛṣṇa's incarnation... There are hundred and thousands of incarnation:
nānāvatāram akarod bhuvaneṣu kintu
kṛṣṇaḥ svayaṁ samabhavat paramaḥ pumān yo
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi
Kṛṣṇa has innumerable expansions---rāmādi. Rāma, Lord Rāmacandra, is also Kṛṣṇa's expansion. Rāmādi-mūrtiṣu kalā. Kalā means expansion of the expansion. Just like... I have given this example many times = the original candle, and you ignite another candle. That is second candle, and from the second, from the third..., the third; from the third, the fourth. In this way, all the candles, although you say, "This is first candle, second candle, third candle, fourth candle," but they are all equally powerful. So far candlepower is concerned, they are equally the same. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa's incarnation, Kṛṣṇa is the origin, kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28], the origin person, ādi-puruṣa. Govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi. Still, the expansion of Kṛṣṇa... Just like the first expansion is Balarāma, then Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha. Then Nārāyaṇa. Then again Saṅkarṣaṇa, Pradyumna, Aniruddha. Then Mahā-Viṣṇu. Then, from Mahā-Viṣṇu, Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. From Garbhodakaśāyī Viṣṇu to Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu. From Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu there are innumerable expansions, Paramātmā expansion. Īśvaraḥ sarva-bhūtānāṁ hṛd-deśe arjuna tiṣṭhati [Bg. 18.61]. So in this way there is... The Śrīmad-Bhāgavata says, "Expansion of Kṛṣṇa are so many, just like incessant waves in the river or in the ocean."
So that is one status of expansion. And another expansion is the jīva-tattva. We are also expansion. In the Varāha Purāṇa it is said, svāṁśa and vibhinnāṁśa. The vibhinnāṁśa expansion, they are also innumerable, jīvas. We are also expansion of Kṛṣṇa. But svāṁśa and vibhinnāṁśa. So the vibhinnāṁśa expansion, they are minute, and the svāṁśa expansion, they are vibhu, unlimited. So in this way we have to understand the distinction between svāṁśa and vibhinnāṁśa. When svāṁśa expansion comes within this material world, He remains vibhu, or prabhu, and the vibhinnāṁśa expansion is always aṇu, very small, or servant. One is prabhu, and the other is servant. One is vibhu and the other is aṇu.
So the aṇu, vibhinnāṁśa jīva, when he comes within this material world, he becomes entrapped, or his that jyoti... In the previous verse you have studied jyoti. Vibhinnāṁśa living entity, we are also jyoti. Just like spark. The original fire is also fire, and the spark fire, that is also fire. Quality the same, but a spark, when falls down on your cloth, it can burn a little portion. Similarly, if the whole fire comes, then you become burned into pieces. The same example again = the sun and the sunshine. Sunshine is combination small particle of shining molecules. Similarly, we are also the same spark. Dīpārcir eva hi daśāntaram abhyupetya dīpāyate [Bs. 5.46]. So Kṛṣṇa and His expansion, They are all the same. And we, vibhinnāṁśa jīva, we are very small. Therefore our condition is different from Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa is not infected by the material qualities, but we become infected. Na māṁ karmāṇi limpanti na me karma-phale spṛhā [Bg. 4.14], it is said in the Bhagavad-gītā. The activities in this material world, Kṛṣṇa remains unaffected, but we, being a small particle, we become infected by the qualities = tribhir guṇamayair bhāvaiḥ.
So those who are too much infected by these material qualities, they cannot understand Kṛṣṇa. Nāhaṁ prakāśaḥ sarvasya yoga-māyā-samāvṛtaḥ [Bg. 7.25]. They think that "Kṛṣṇa and we are the same." But that is not the fact. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam [Bg. 9.11]. Because Kṛṣṇa comes as human being, we may think that "Kṛṣṇa is as good as I am." No. That should not be. Kṛṣṇa is vibhu, and we are aṇu. Kṛṣṇa is master, and we are servant. That is our eternal relationship. We should not forget that. And sa eva prakṛtiṁ sūkṣmāṁ daivīṁ guṇamayīṁ vibhuḥ. Prakṛti, prakṛti, this prakṛti is also Kṛṣṇa's. Kṛṣṇa, the supreme powerful, He can utilize the prakṛti as He likes. He is not controlled by prakṛti. But we are controlled by prakṛti. Because He is vibhu... Vibhu means the great. So you cannot say great..., māyā, or prakṛti is greater than Kṛṣṇa. You cannot say. Then your God is not great. If something is greater than God, then you cannot say "God is great." If you accept this, that there is no more greater identity than Kṛṣṇa, then you can say, "Kṛṣṇa is great, or..." Kṛṣṇa cannot be entrapped. Nūnaṁ mahatān tatra. If you are smaller, then you can be overpowered by the great. If your strength is lesser than another man... Say, two wrestler. If one wrestler is more powerful, he can defeat the other wrestler.
So therefore, here it is said that vibhuḥ... Kṛṣṇa is vibhuḥ, and if He is covered by māyā, as the Māyāvādī philosopher thinks, that "When God comes within this material world, He is also covered by māyā..." He is not covered by māyā. If māyā is greater than Kṛṣṇa, then māyā can cover Kṛṣṇa. But that is not the fact. Kṛṣṇa says, mama māyā. That means... Mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṁ taranti te [Bg. 7.14]. If one surrenders to Kṛṣṇa, then he becomes free from the clutches of māyā. So how Kṛṣṇa can be caught by māyā? This is contradictory. If anyone surrenders to Kṛṣṇa, he becomes free from the influence of māyā, simply by surrendering. Then how Kṛṣṇa can be influenced by māyā? It is common sense. By surrendering to Kṛṣṇa, by becoming a devotee of Kṛṣṇa, you become free from the clutches of māyā. Mām eva ye prapadyante. Simply by surrendering. Māyām etāṁ taranti te. So never think that Kṛṣṇa... The Māyāvādī thinks like that, that "We are one, Kṛṣṇa and we. We are one." Yes, we are one---in quality. The same thing = just like the fire and the spark, one in burning capacity. Even a small spark of the fire, it can burn. So we are one in the spiritual quality, but in quantity, we are different. Same example = vibhu and aṇu. This is very nice verse in the Bhagavad-gītā, mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṁ taranti te.
In another verse is there,
māyāṁ ca tad-apāśrayam
samyak praṇihite 'male
Vyāsadeva was, when he was instructed by his spiritual master Nārada Muni to write Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, at that time, by bhakti-yoga meditation, he could see the Supreme Personality of Godhead and this māyā also. But it is said, māyāṁ ca tad-apāśrayam. Māyā is situated in the back side, back side, without any influence upon Kṛṣṇa, apāśrayam, under the control. So māyā is always controlled. Kṛṣṇa is the controller of māyā.
In another place, in the Brahma-saṁhitā, it is said, sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-sādhana-śaktir ekā chāyeva yasya bhuvanāni bibharti durgā [Bs. 5.44]. Durgā is the material energy, and she has got immense power. Sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-sādhana-śaktiḥ. She is controlling this creation, or this whole universe, sṛṣṭi, and sthiti, its maintenance, and pralaya. Three things she is controlling. She is so powerful. Sṛṣṭi-sthiti-pralaya-sādhana-śaktir ekā chāyeva yasya bhuvanāni bibharti durgā. The durgā-śakti, material energy, she is so powerful, but it is working chāyeva, just like shadow. Shadow has no independent capacity; it is dependent on the substance. Substance and shadow. So Kṛṣṇa is the substance, and the power derived from Kṛṣṇa, partially exhibited by the durgā-śakti. In the Upaniṣad also it is said, na tasya kāryaṁ karaṇaṁ ca vidyate na tat-samaś cābhyadhikaś ca dṛśyate [Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.8]. Kṛṣṇa, the Supreme Personality of God, He has nothing to do. Na tasya kāryaṁ karaṇaṁ ca vidyate na tat-samaḥ. Nobody is equal to Him. Kṛṣṇa also says in the Bhagavad-gītā, mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat kascit [Bg. 7.7] = "There is nothing superior than Me, the Supreme." In the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam also it is said, oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya, satyaṁ paraṁ dhīmahi [SB 1.1.1]. That is the Supreme Truth.
So all the śāstras will say that Kṛṣṇa, or the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He has got different expansions unlimited. Although Kṛṣṇa is one, but He can expand Himself into many, many millions. Advaitam acyutam anādim ananta-rūpam [Bs. 5.33]. Ananta-rūpam. And each rūpam is acting in some universe. Just like at this time, here, you find darkness in Bombay, but the sun is present in all his different phases all over the world. Sun rises in the morning at, say, seven o'clock. So this seven o'clock to next seven o'clock, in the evening seven o'clock, you will find, if you immediately take information, somewhere it is seven o'clock, somewhere it is twelve o'clock, somewhere it is six o'clock, somewhere it is... All the time formula of the sun is present, although we are seeing there is no sun. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa is present throughout the whole universe in some feature. In one universe you will find Kṛṣṇa is taking birth, janmāṣṭamī. In some universe you will see Kṛṣṇa is playing with the cowherd boys. Somewhere it is... In this way. Therefore it is called nitya-līlā. Nitya-līlā means the janmāṣṭamī-līlā is going on permanently somewhere or other. Therefore it is called līlayā, yadṛcchayā.
So this is a great science, Kṛṣṇa science, kṛṣṇa-tattva. So we have to learn from the authorized Vedic literature about Kṛṣṇa. And that is required in human life. Because if we simply understand the truth about Kṛṣṇa, janma karma ca me divyam [Bg. 4.9], which are divine, transcendental, yo jānāti tattvataḥ, if you try to understand and if you become fortunate to understand the divine nature of Kṛṣṇa's līlā, then you become liberated, immediately = tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya [Bg. 4.9]. The Sāṅkhya philosophy of Kapiladeva is explained in this way to understand Kṛṣṇa.
So Kṛṣṇa, yadṛcchayaivopagatām abhyapadyata līlayā. Kṛṣṇa is līlā, and our coming here is not līlā. We are forced. We are forced. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa dehopapattaye [SB 3.31.1]. Kṛṣṇa's body is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1]. Kṛṣṇa's body is not material. Even if we think it is material, still, it is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha. Just like one can argue that "Here is Kṛṣṇa's form. It is made of stone. How it is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha?" But if you know the nature of Kṛṣṇa, even He appears as stone, still He is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha. How? Because the stone is also energy of Kṛṣṇa.
That is said in the Upaniṣad:
na tat-samaś cābhyadhikaś ca dṛśyate
parāsya śaktir vividhaiva śrūyate...
[Śvetāśvatara Upaniṣad 6.8,
Cc. Madhya 13.65, purport]
So the stone is also another energy of Kṛṣṇa. Another energy of Kṛṣṇa. As Kṛṣṇa is all-powerful, He can utilize His energy in anyway. He can utilize His energy in any way. Just like an electrician---he knows how to utilize electricity for the refrigerator and the heater, although the heating process is just opposite of the cooling process. We see opposite. Similarly, material nature and spiritual nature, just opposite, but the same way = the electricity utilized for heating and electricity utilized for cooling, the energy is the same, but it is the manipulation of the engineer which can turn heat into cold and cold into heat. So therefore, for Kṛṣṇa there is no material nature. Everything is spiritual nature. Even Kṛṣṇa appears as material form, as stone, as matter, still, one who knows Kṛṣṇa, he can derive Kṛṣṇa's favor from any form. Otherwise, the devotees are recommended to worship the Deity in the temple.
So do you think that the ācāryas and the śāstra have advised them to waste their time by worshiping a stone? It is all recommended by the ācāryas, big, big ācāryas. Just like Rāmānujācārya = he established hundreds of temples all over India, Lakṣmī-Nārāyaṇa temple especially, the Rāmānuja-sampradāya. Similarly, Caitanya Mahāprabhu's sampradāya established hundreds of temples Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. Big, big ācārya. Do you mean to say they did mistake? As some people of our India, they say, "There is no need of worshiping in the temple." No. Why not need? Ācāryopāsanam, that is recommended, jñāna. Ācārya... Ācāryas, they have established temples, many hundreds of thousands of temples, of Viṣṇu mandira.
So this should be worshiped. Otherwise you cannot... Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ [Cc. Madhya 17.186]. If you do not follow ācāryas, then...
upadekṣyanti te jñānaṁ
The ācāryas are tattva-darśī. They know how to make you devotee. Therefore they have prescribed, and Kṛṣṇa in His any condition, life, He is sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha.
anādir ādir govindaḥ
Unless Kṛṣṇa becomes available to your service, then how you can serve? We have, at the present moment, no eyes to see Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa, out of His causeless mercy, He has appeared in His original form just to receive or accept service from you. You cannot serve Kṛṣṇa in His virāḍ-rūpa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa has come to you to accept your service in this metal or stone form. But He is not metal or stone. This is called kṛṣṇa-tattva-jñāna.
Arcye viṣṇau śilā-dhīr guruṣu nara-matir vaiṣṇave jāti-buddhiḥ [Padma Purāṇa]. These things are forbidden. You cannot... Arcye viṣṇau śilā-dhīḥ. Kṛṣṇa or Viṣṇu---the same thing---if you think that this mūrti is made of stone, śilā-dhīḥ, or Śālagrāma-śilā, if you think it is śilā, or stone, this is nārakī-buddhiḥ. This is not recommended. It is... Don't think. Arcye viṣṇau śilā-dhīr guruṣu nara-matiḥ. And those who are guru, spiritual master, Vaiṣṇava, if you think of them that he is ordinary human being, that is forbidden. Gāṅga-jala or caraṇāmṛta, if you think ordinary water, that is forbidden. Vaiṣṇave jāti-buddhiḥ: Vaiṣṇava, who has become devotee of Kṛṣṇa, if you think that he belongs to this caste, he belongs to that caste, that is also forbidden. Nārakī-buddhiḥ. These things are nārakī-buddhiḥ. At least, those who do not know how Kṛṣṇa can be transcendental in all His features... Therefore we are forbidden, "Don't take like that." It is a fact that this Kṛṣṇa in this temple is the same origin Kṛṣṇa who is in the Vaikuṇṭha, but because we have no eyes to see, because we are not mature to see Kṛṣṇa, therefore we should accept this, I mean to say, negation, that "Don't think like that." Then we will be able to understand.
So that janma karma me divyam [Bg. 4.9]. Nothing is Kṛṣṇa's anything material. Everything is spiritual. But by His līlayā, to manifest different līlā, He accepts different types of body. But they are all Kṛṣṇa, the same original person. Advaitam acyutam... Acyuta, He does not fall down. Therefore His name is Acyuta. Acyuta means never falls down, never deviates. He is always in His sac-cid-ānanda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1]. Not that because He has appeared for my convenience to accept my service in this form which I am seeing or the atheist is seeing, that it is stone. No. He is not stone. Advaitam acyutam. He doesn't fall. He does not deviate. Otherwise, there are many stories. That, in the Caitanya-caritāmṛta, the Sākṣi-gopāla. Sākṣi-gopāla temple is there in Jagannātha Purī. Just one station before Purī there is Sākṣi-gopāla station. And there is a temple, Sākṣi. Sākṣi means the witness. That vigraha, that Deity, was in Vṛndāvana. He came to give evidence for His devotee. Therefore He is known as Sākṣi-gopāla. So devotee talks. Even if you think, "This is stone" or "This is metal," but devotee can talk, and Kṛṣṇa talks with him. There are many instances. That requires advancement of spiritual life.
So this is called tattva, to know about Kṛṣṇa perfectly. And the informations are there in the śāstras. And simply to understand it, we require a little qualification. We require little qualification. Otherwise, everything is there. That qualification is to increase the, I mean to say, temper of your devotion, or increase the quality of your love for Kṛṣṇa. Premāñjana-cchurita-bhakti-vilocanena santaḥ sadaiva hṛdayeṣu vilo... [Bs. 5.38]. And that love can be increased by the process:
tato 'nartha-nivṛttiḥ syāt tato niṣṭhā tato rucis
tato athāsaktis tato bhāvas...
sādhakānām ayaṁ premṇaḥ prādurbhāve bhavet kramaḥ
[Cc. Madhya 23.14-15]
This is step by step.
So our this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is giving, educating people how to become Kṛṣṇa conscious, how to know the science of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā. And anyone who knows Kṛṣṇa perfectly well... That is... Caitanya Mahāprabhu approves that it doesn't matter what he is, a scientist. Yei kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā, sei 'guru' haya [Cc. Madhya 8.128] = "Anyone who knows perfectly well the science of Kṛṣṇa," kṛṣṇa-tattva-vettā, "in truth, he is guru." Nobody can become guru unless he knows the science of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore it is said in the śāstra that ṣaṭ-karma-nipuṇo vipraḥ. Vipra means brāhmaṇa.
Brāhmaṇa, he is supposed to know six kind of activities, ṣaṭ-karma. Ṣaṭ means six. What is that six kinds of? Paṭhana pāṭhana. Brāhmaṇa must be very learned, very expert, expertly learned in Vedic knowledge. That is called paṭhana. And pāṭhana: and he must teach others. He must be teacher, not that "I know, and keep all the knowledge in my belly." No. Therefore formerly all the brāhmaṇas, they had catuṣpāṭhī. The brāhmaṇa will sit down anywhere and begin teaching others. The student will come. That is brāhmaṇa's business. Paṭhana... But unless he is himself learned, how he can teach? So therefore, first of all he must be learned, paṭhana, and then pāṭhana, then he can teach others. Paṭhana pāṭhana yajana yājana. He must worship the Supreme Lord, and he must teach others how to worship the Supreme.
That... What is this, Viśvanātha Cakravartī's verse? Niyuñjato 'pi. Śrī-vigrahārādhana-nitya-nānā. One of the symptoms of guru is described by Viśvanātha Cakravartī Ṭhākura, śrī-vigraha ārādhana: "He knows how to worship the Deity." Śrī-vigrahārādhana-nitya-nānā-śṛṅgāra-tan-mandira-mārjanādau. Dressing the Deity and tan-mandira-mārjanādau, and cleansing the temple, keeping everything fit in the temple. So the guru knows it, how to do it, and he teaches his disciple.
yuktasya bhaktāṁś ca niyuñjato 'pi...
He is personally engaged, and he engages his disciples. Not that you make a disciple and you keep him aside, "You cannot touch." This is going on. How? Then how he has become your disciple? If you have accepted him as disciple, how you can keep him aloof? No. "You are śūdra. You are mleccha." Therefore vaiṣṇave jāti-buddhiḥ. You cannot make Vaiṣṇava... As soon as he becomes Vaiṣṇava, no more jāti. He is transcendental. Sa guṇān sama...
Jāti---brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra---that is within this material world, not in the spiritual world. Spiritual world, everyone is eternal servant of Kṛṣṇa. There is no more jāti, no more distinction. Everything serving. That one. The master is also spiritual, and the servant is also spiritual, and there is no other relationship. Here in the material world we artificially want to become..., we want to become God. But in the spiritual world there is no such conception. In the spiritual world there are also living entities. They are called nitya-siddha. Nitya-siddha means eternally perfect. There are two kinds of living entities = nitya-siddha and nitya-baddha, eternally conditioned. Yesterday we were reading that nitya-supta-buddhiḥ. Here in this material world, however we may be acting, we are sleeping. Yā niśā sarva-bhūtānām [Bg. 2.69]. They are sleeping. We may show very good activities everywhere, but a saintly person will see that "All these rascals are sleeping." And these rascals will see the devotee is sleeping. Because they will see that "These rascals, they have taken to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, doing nothing for their bodily comfort and sense gratification. They are sleeping. They are misusing this life." And the devotees are seeing that "These rascal, those who are not Kṛṣṇa conscious, they are sleeping." So yā niśā sarva-bhūtānāṁ tasmin jāgarti saṁyamī.
So this is going on, opposite of... Actually, the conditioned soul in this material world, they are sleeping. Therefore Vedas says, uttiṣṭhata jāgrata prāpya varān nibodhata [Kaṭha Upaniṣad 1.3.14], that "You rascal, you are why sleeping?" They are not sleeping. They are thinking, "I'm so busy." But that busy-ness is also dream, just like a man sleeping and dreaming that he is very busy. So this kind of life is condemned. Therefore the Veda says, "Get up! Get up! Now you have got this..." Prāpya varān nibodhata: "You have got this human form of life. You try to understand Kṛṣṇa. You try to understand the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Try to understand your relationship and act accordingly. Then your life will be successful. Otherwise you are wasting your time."
Thank you very much.
Devotees: Jaya Śrīla Prabhupāda. [end]