Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam 1.2.9 , Hyderabad , 1974-04-23

Prabhupāda: [Chants jaya rādhā-mādhava] [break]


Pradyumna: Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. Oṁ namo bhagavate vāsudevāya. [Prabhupāda and devotees repeat] [leads chanting of verse]

dharmasya hy āpavargyasya
nārtho 'rthāyopakalpate
nārthasya dharmaikāntasya
kāmo lābhāya hi smṛtaḥ

[break] [05:40]

Translation = "All occupational engagements, or dharmas, are certainly meant for ultimate liberation. They should never be performed for material gain. Furthermore, one who is engaged in the ultimate occupational service, or dharma, should never use material gain to cultivate sense gratification."


dharmasya ca apavargyasya
na artha arthāyopakalpate
na arthasya dharmaikāntasya
kāmo lābhāya hi smṛtaḥ

We have begun this discussion about dharma. We have several times described dharma, the constitutional characteristic. That is called dharma. So people have taken dharma for sense gratification. Just like generally people go to the church or temple for asking some material gain. That is beginning, beginning of God consciousness.

catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ
sukṛtino 'rjuna
ārto arthārthī jijñāsur
jñānī ca bharatarṣabha

Four classes of men, means those conditioned soul... [aside, about fan:] Why is stopped? Hmm. People who are pious, not ordinary men, those who are pious... Therefore in the Vedic principle everyone has been directed to become pious, puṇya-karma. Tyaja durjana-saṁsargaṁ bhaja sādhu-samāgamam [Cāṇakya Paṇḍita]. This is moral instruction, that "Don't keep company with durjana." Durjana means those who are very much attached to material enjoyment. They are called durjana. Actually, human life is meant for tapasya, not to become like cats and dogs and hogs, simply eating and sense gratification. That is not human life. This is Vedic civilization. Because human life is meant for making solution of all problem.

Here it is said, dharmasya ca āpavargyasya. Apavarga. A means negation, and pavarga... Pavarga---pa, pha, ba, bha, ma. Just like, those who are acquainted with Sanskrit grammar, there are five vargas = ka varga, ca varga, ta varga, similarly, pa varga. Pa, pha, ba, bha, ma. So pavarga means they have taken the material life in different aspect. First of all, material life is pariśrama, hard labor. This is called pa, pariśrama. And then, pha: the labor is so hard, sometime foam comes. We have seen from the mouth of the horse, cows and bulls, dogs. We sometimes, we have also, our tongue becomes dry after working very hard; there are foams. This is pha. Pa, pha. And ba means vyarthatā: in spite of so much labor, our sense gratification is not fulfilled. That is called vyarthatā. Pa, pha, ba, vyarthatā. And then bha. Bha means bhaya, always fearful. Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunaṁ ca [Hitopadeśa 25]. Every conditioned soul is subjected to fearfulness, "What will happen next?" Big, big politician... Just like in USA, President Nixon, he is also under fear = "How these people will drive me away?" So this bhaya must be there. Hard labor for election, then rejection, then bhaya, fearfulness, "Whether my this position will remain or not?" Nobody is free. Even Brahmā, big, big demigods, they are also fearful. Bhayaṁ dvitīya abhiniveśataḥ syāt. Śāstra says when one is attached to the other thing except God, dvitīya... Because God is one. Eka brahma. When one is not Brahman-realized---the other realized means illusion-realized---then there is bhaya. So apavarga = pa, pha, ba, bha, in this way ma means mṛtyu, death.

So this has been summarized. These are called pavarga. And apa... A means to nullify. So dharma, practice of dharma, means to nullify these conditions, these miserable conditions of material existence. That is the purpose of dharma. Dharmasya hy āpavargyasya. Āpavargyasya, to cease this labor. Tri-tāpa-yantraṇā, three types of miserable condition = adhyātmika, adhibhautika, adhidaivika. That is animal life, bodily concept of life. Therefore dharma should be practiced for nullifying. Because we do not want to work very hard, every one of us, but we have to, especially at the present moment. That is stated in the Bhāgavata. In the Kali-yuga the situation will be so much deteriorated that simply for a piece of bread, one has to work just like an ass. Very hard labor. It has come to become so. Gradually, it will deteriorate more and more. These are stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Now rice and wheat is selling at a high price, three rupees' kilo. But time will come when if you pay 300,000 rupees, still, it will not be available. Especially rice, wheat, sugar and milk and fruits. That means sāttvikāhāra. These things will be finished. Therefore they are learning how to eat beef. This is the beginning. Just like a child learns to eat, little, little. Otherwise there will be no more food. Therefore dharma is required to stop this miserable condition of life. That is real dharma.

Therefore to come to the real point of dharma, transcendental position, in the material conditional life, the dharma, varṇāśrama-dharma... Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma-vibhāgaśaḥ [Bg. 4.13]. Viprādayo guṇaḥ pṛthak cātur-varṇyam. Ya eṣaṁ puruṣaṁ sākṣād ātma-prabhāvam īśvaram, na bhajanti avajānanti... [SB 11.5.3]. Puruṣasya āśramaiḥ saha [SB 11.5.2]. Tyakta jagṛhe varṇa iprādayo guṇaḥ pṛthak. These are the statements of śāstra, that the human society, just to make it real human society, not cats' and dogs' society, there must be varṇāśrama. That is dharma. In the material stage, when we have to take care of this body, there must be this varṇāśrama. That is systematic human society. If there is no varṇāśrama-dharma, then it is cats' and dogs' society. In the cats' and dogs' society there is no varṇāśrama-dharma. That... They do not require it; neither they can understand it. So if the human society becomes varṇāśrama-less, without varṇāśrama-dharma, then it is cats' and dogs' society. Then subjected to the so many miserable condition of material nature. That is inevitable.

So dharma, first of all this dharma. Cātur-varṇyaṁ mayā sṛṣṭaṁ guṇa-karma... This is dharma = brāhmaṇa-dharma, kṣatriya-dharma, vaiśya-dharma and śūdra-dharma, brahmacārī-dharma, gṛhastha-dharma... We call gṛhastha-dharma. Otherwise, wife and children..., the cats and dogs, they have also wife and children. Then why? This is called dharma. Dharmāviruddhaḥ kāmo 'smi. Kṛṣṇa says, in the Bhagavad..., dharma aviruddhaḥ kāmo 'smi: "Sex life, sense gratification, which is not against dharma, that is I." So there must be dharma, characteristic. This is the characteristics of brāhmaṇa. This is the characteristics of kṣatriya. This is the characteristic of vaiśya. This is character of śūdra, brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, sannyāsa. This must be systematically organized. That is called dharma. Because the real purpose is, dharmasya hy āpavargyasya: just to nullify this miserable condition of material life, not... Dharmasya hy āpavargyasya na arthaḥ arthāya upakalpate.

Now it has been taken as "I am brāhmaṇa. So how to earn more money by giving somebody blessings," or "Give me some money," or "I shall make some pūjā; he will get some material benefit, this pūjā, that pūjā," especially demigods. You worship Kālī-pūjā so you will be able to eat meat. Then Caṇḍī-pūjā. Then he will be able to drink wine, and so many others. They are also in the scriptures. Because people want... There are varieties of men. So they have been given. These are regulative principles. Just like Kālī-pūjā, pūjā of the goddess Kālī. The real purpose is to eat meat. Because in any other demigod worship there is no animal sacrifice. But there are some demigods, the purpose is, instead of purchasing from the slaughterhouse, if they are restricted that "You eat meat after worshiping this demigod," there will be some restriction. That is the purpose, to come in, to bring him under restriction. Otherwise it is not required at all. And you will find in the Pañcāṅga that "Today meat-eating is prohibited." Actually, it is prohibited. But those who are meat-eaters, they cannot give up. Therefore one day restriction, this restriction, that restriction---everything to bring him under regulative principle. Because real purpose is to make him detached from this material attraction and make him promoted āpavargyasya, how to get out of this material miserable condition of life. This is called dharmasya hy āpavargyasya, not that "We have got this ceremony today, Kālī-pūjā ceremony. Let us sacrifice thousands of goats and eat and drink and enjoy." That is not the purpose. Na arthāya upakalpate. Some men... Artha means material. Paramārtha means spiritual.

So execution of dharma, religion---never mind Hindu religion or Christian religion---the purpose is not for any material gain. Na upakalpate. Dharmasya hy āpavargyasya na arthāya upakalpate. Then what about our sense gratification? We must have. We have got this body. We must have some facility. So that is also described here, na arthasya dharma ekāntasya. Arthasya, one who is actually a student of dharma, ekāntasya. Na arthasya dharma ekāntasya kāmo lābhāya hi smṛtaḥ. Not for sense gratification. You require some money. So by your profession, either as a brāhmaṇa or as kṣatriya or as a vaiśya or as a śūdra... A brahmacārī, gṛhastha, vānaprastha, that is for spiritual advancement. And for material---this brāhmaṇa, kṣatriya, vaiśya, śūdra. So you require some money, because without money, without source of income, how you can live? But that is not meant for sense gratification. Therefore it is said, na arthasya dharmaikāntasya kāmo lābhāya hi smṛtaḥ.

Just like everyone is earning money simply for sense gratification. And there are so many advertisement for sense gratification. If you go to the city, you will find all the shops, cinema, hotel and wine shop and this shop or that shop. What are these, big, big, nice sārī, displayed, demonstrated? Everything is for sense gratification. So this is not meant for... You require money. People are hankering after money = "How I shall get money to purchase this nice sārī for my wife or for my beloved, for my...?" Then "How I shall purchase wine? How I shall purchase this car, this?" Everything is that. Everything is meant for kāma, for sense gratification. Naturally, one should be inclined to earn money, more money, more money, and more sense gratification. That means he is becoming implicated. That he does not know. Nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma [SB 5.5.4]. Pramattaḥ. Because they have become mad after sense gratification, they are doing everything which should not be done, vikarma. Karma, vikarma, akarma. So people are generally doing vikarma. Vikarma means forbidden, sinful activities. They are called vikarma. Karma is not sinful. Karma means according to the direction of the Vedas. That is called karma-kāṇḍa. But vikarma means against the principle of dharma. That is called vikarma.

So this has been observed. Therefore Mahārāja Ṛṣabhadeva says,

nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma
yad indriya-prītaya āpṛṇoti
na sādhu manye yata ātmano 'yam
asann api kleśada āsa dehaḥ

"My dear boys, people are so mad after sense gratification that they are simply doing..." [break] [20:33~~] ...increasing. So why they are increasing? Nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma yad indriya-prītaye, simply for sense gratification, no other business. If they go to the cinema or to the wine shop or to so many other things---there are varieties---simply sense gratification. There is no other profit. But the śāstra says, na sādhu..., na sādhu manye yata ātmano 'yam asann api kleśada āsa dehaḥ [SB 5.5.4]. The people do not understand that this material body means suffering. They do not understand. They think very nice body. The cats and dogs may think like that. Just like hog. Hog is thinking, "I am very happy," and he is getting fatty. You will find. They think, "I am very happy." What is that happiness? "Now, I am eating stool." "Oh, that's very good. Then where you are living?" "Now, in the most insanitary condition." But he is also thinking that "I am happy."

So this is called māyā. This is called illusion. Everyone is thinking that "I am very happy," although his body, this material body, means suffering. Who is a person here who is not... Why you are getting this fan? Because the body is suffering on account of excessive heat. This is called adhidaivika, the heat, excessive heat, excessive cold. These are also sufferings. This is called adhidaivika. But we are thinking, "We are very comfortable." We never think that "I do not want this heat. Why it is being forced upon me?" That he never considers. "If there is any remedy? I do not want it." But this body, as soon as you accept this material body made of these five elements, earth, water, air, fire, sky, mind, intelligence... This is material body.

So Ṛṣabhadeva says, nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma yad indriya-prītaye [SB 5.5.4]. Simply we have got this... This bodily concept of life means the senses. Indriyāṇi parā... The senses are very prominent. So simply for sense gratification we are acting so much sinfully that we are becoming implicated. Nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma yad indriya-prītaya āpṛṇoti na sādhu manye [SB 5.5.4] = "This is not good." Why? "Now, yata ātmanaḥ, the soul," ayam, ātmano 'yam asann api kleśada āsa dehaḥ, "the ātmā, the soul, has accepted this body on account of this vikarma, on account of this vikarma." Therefore people should be instructed to be expert in sukarma, sukṛti. Sukṛti. That sukṛti is this Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Sukṛti. They should be instructed. Sukṛtivān. Catur-vidhā bhajante māṁ sukṛtinaḥ arjuna. Unless one is sukṛtivān, he cannot take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Therefore everyone should be instructed to become sukṛtivān, puṇyavān. Yeṣāṁ tv anta-gataṁ pāpaṁ janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām. Unless one is free from all sinful activities, simply by acting piously... Janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām, te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā bhajante māṁ dṛḍha-vratāḥ [Bg. 7.28]. They can understand what is Kṛṣṇa and what is Kṛṣṇa worship. Others cannot do.

Therefore this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is to make people free from all sinful activities. Then they will be happy. Because in the soul proper, it is pure. Just like you contaminate some disease, so you suffer. You have got fever, you have got some pain, so you have to go to the physician. He will give you some medicine to counteract the contamination. Then you become happy. Similarly, we are all part and parcel of God, Kṛṣṇa. Naturally we must be happy. Ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt [Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12]. This is our position, that we must be always ānandamaya, jubilant. This is our position. Just like Kṛṣṇa is dancing---you have seen---similarly, our position is simply dancing with Kṛṣṇa and be happy. That is our position. But we have come to this material world to enjoy independently of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore we have been captured by the illusory energy.

kṛṣṇa-bhuliyā-jiva bhoga vāñchā kare
pasate māyā tāre jāpaṭiyā dhare


As soon as we forget or defy to enjoy with Kṛṣṇa... Just like a big man, a rich man. So the rich man is enjoying along with the servants are also enjoying. The servants are not poor in a rich man's house. He is eating of the same thing. He is also riding on the same car with the master. Rather, the driver is in the front, and the master is in the back. So in this way we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Just like in a family, why you take the risk of family? For enjoyment. I am alone. I can remain happy. Now, why you take the wife? I know if I marry then there will be children, there will be so many responsibilities. But why you accept? For happiness. Similarly, Kṛṣṇa is the supreme happy person. So we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, to remain with Kṛṣṇa always. And He becomes happy, we are happy. This is our position.

So that we have forgotten. We wanted to be happy. Just like there are many examples = A very rich man's son, he wants to become happy without his father. He becomes independent, comes out of home and goes here and there, but he does not become happy. There are many instances. Again he comes back home. Similarly, our position in this material world is like that. Our position is very jubilant and happy, ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt [Vedānta-sūtra 1.1.12], sac-cid-ānanda. Sat-cit-ānan... We have got our eternal life, sat; cit, and full of knowledge; and blissful, as Kṛṣṇa has got. Therefore because we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūta [Bg. 15.7], so Kṛṣṇa, if Kṛṣṇa is good, so I am also good. If Kṛṣṇa is happy, then I must be happy. If Kṛṣṇa is jubilant, then I must be jubilant. Wherefrom we get this idea of happiness? Because we are part of Kṛṣṇa. Just like Kṛṣṇa dances with the gopīs, we also want to dance with young girls here, in this material world. Why? Wherefrom this idea we have got? The idea is already there, and we are part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore we have got this propensity. So ānandamayo 'bhyāsāt.

But this thing can be purely enjoyed not alone in this material world, but you have to go back to home, go back to Kṛṣṇa, and there is your real life. Kṛṣṇa comes therefore. He displays His rāsa dance in Vṛndāvana to attract these fallen souls, that "If you want enjoyment, why not come back to Me? Here is the enjoyment. Here is the enjoyment, eternal enjoyment. Why you are rotting in this material world and becoming implicated, sometimes as Brahmā and sometime as the worm in the stool? Enjoyment, varieties of enjoyment. Why? Why you are so become fool?" Therefore Kṛṣṇa says, He comes here, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66] = "You come to Me. Why you are bothering in this way and suffering?" But people will not hear. That is the difficulty. That is the difficulty. Kṛṣṇa displays what is the standard of happiness with Kṛṣṇa in Vṛndāvana. Kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ.

itthaṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā
dāsyaṁ gatānāṁ para-daivatena
māyāśritānāṁ nara-dārakeṇa
sākaṁ vijahruḥ kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ

[SB 10.12.11]

Śukadeva Gosvāmī is remarking... When he saw..., means he come to the position of describing Kṛṣṇa's playing with the cowherds boys. So the cowherd boys are playing. Sometimes Kṛṣṇa is defeated. He has to take one cowherd boy on His shoulder. So Śukadeva Gosvāmī is studying that "Who are these cowherd boys? They're playing with Kṛṣṇa. They are not ordinary cowherd..." Kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ: "After many, many births' accumulation of pious activities, now they have come to play with Kṛṣṇa."

So this is the position. Itthaṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā. Here is Kṛṣṇa. Who is that? The Supreme Brahman, Para-brahman. The jñānīs, they want to appreciate the Supreme Brahman. Satām. Brahma-sukha, brahma-sukha. They are after brahma-sukha. Here is the source of brahma-sukha. Brahmaṇo 'haṁ pratiṣṭhā. So here is the... Just like the light, illumination---there is a source of light, the sunshine, illumination. The source is the sun globe. Similarly, the brahma-jyotir, what is the source? Kṛṣṇa says, brahmaṇaḥ ahaṁ pratiṣṭhā: "I am the source. From Me it is coming." Therefore the same thing is... Itthaṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā: "the source of brahma-sukha." Itthaṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā dāsyaṁ gatānāṁ nara-dārakeṇa..., para daivatena. And dāsyaṁ gatānām: "Those who have accepted the principle of to become the servant of God," means the devotees. The devotees, they never want to become one with Brahman effulgence, sāyujya-mukti. They will never accept this. They want to keep their individuality and enjoy with Kṛṣṇa. That is Vaiṣṇava philosophy. Itthaṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā dāsyaṁ gatānāṁ para-daivatena. Para-daivata: "the Supreme Lord." And māyāśritānāṁ nara-dārakeṇa: "And those who are under the influence of māyā, they are thinking Kṛṣṇa as ordinary human child," nara-dārakeṇa. But after all, these boys who are playing, sākaṁ vijahruḥ kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ [SB 10.12.11] = "After accumulating many lives' pious activities, now they are promoted here at Vṛndāvana to play with Kṛṣṇa."

So to play with Kṛṣṇa, to become associate of Kṛṣṇa, to dance with Kṛṣṇa, it is not ordinary thing. We want to do that. We want to do that here. We have got many sporting club, dancing club, because we want to do that. But we want to do in this material world. That is our defect. The same thing, you can do with Kṛṣṇa. Just become Kṛṣṇa conscious and you get the opportunity. Why you are suffering here for sporting and dancing? That is called dharmasya hy āpavargyasya. Stop this, I mean to say, always painful condition of material life. Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti [Bg. 4.9]. Because we have got this material body. This material body means reservoir of all sufferings. By artificial method, so-called scientific advancement, we are trying to patch up, but that is not real happiness. You can go on continuing patching up. This is called māyā. Bhūtvā bhūtvā pralīyate [Bg. 8.19]. You cannot... The real purpose is that everyone wants to live and enjoy, but the māyā will not allow. You can have very nice skyscraper building, but have you made any insurance that you will be allowed to enjoy this house? "No, sir, there is no such insurance." At any moment the nature will call, "Please get out, immediately." "No, I have got to do some business." "No more, sir. Please get out immediately." Can you stop that? Then why you are making plan? Your real plan is not there. Whether you will be allowed to stay here? There is no insurance. And why you are taking so much trouble? Therefore, nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma [SB 5.5.4], the whole day, night, they are working like ass, but there is no assurance whether the happiness for which he is laboring so hard will be allowed to be enjoyed. There is no certainty.

So this is not... Na sādhu manye yata ātmano 'yam. Therefore Ṛṣabhadeva says, "This is not good business, My dear boys, because you have got this body on account of this hard labor and planning in your last life." Yata ātmano 'yam asann api kleśada: "Again you want to have another body to suffer in? What is this intelligence? You are already suffering. You have got all one type of body which means suffering, by your past activities. Again you are doing the same, to get another body to suffer? Is that very intelligence? No, that is not intelligence." Nūnaṁ pramattaḥ kurute vikarma, pramattaḥ [SB 5.5.4]. These are madman's business. Real business is how I shall become permanently happy. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. Kṛṣṇa says,

janma karma me divyaṁ
yo jānāti tattvataḥ
tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma
naiti mām eti kaunteya

That is perfection.

mām upetya kaunteya
duḥkhālayam aśāśvatam
nāpnuvanti mahātmānaḥ
saṁsiddhiṁ paramāṁ gatāḥ

So this is the real life. Take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness and execute it. We are opening centers all over the world to give this chance. It is not a whimsical concoction. It is strictly according to the śāstra, without any mistake, authorized. If you take to this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement, you will be happy perpetually.

Thank you very much. Hare Kṛṣṇa. [end]