Bhagavad-gītā 13.6–7 , Bombay , 1973-09-29


...āny ahaṅkāro
buddhir avyaktam eva ca
indriyāṇi daśaikaṁ ca
pañca cendriya-gocarāḥ
icchā dveṣaḥ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ
saṅghāṭaś cetanā dhṛtiḥ
etat kṣetraṁ samāsena
sa-vikāram udāhṛtam

[Bg. 13.6-7]

Kṛṣṇa is discussing kṣetra, kṣetrajñaḥ, jñāna and jñeya. So kṣetra... Idaṁ śarīraṁ kṣetram ity abhidhīyate. This body is the kṣetra. Ksetra means the field of activities. Just like a cultivator, he has got a certain portion of land, and according to the land, he is seeding, sowing the seeds of grains, and as he is working, he's getting the profit by agricultural product. Similarly, this body is a field, is field, and we are sowing the seed, karma, sowing the seed and getting the result. Karmaṇā daiva-netreṇa [SB 3.31.1].

Why we have got different types of bodies? Why we haven't got, everyone, the same type of body? Somebody is fat, somebody is very thin, somebody white, somebody black, somebody very beautiful, somebody very ugly. There are so many varieties of bodies. Why? Saṅghāṭa. This is combination, color combination. There are three guṇas. Prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ [Bg. 3.27]. As you are associating with the guṇa, you are getting different types of body.

That is, Kṛṣṇa is explaining here, that mahā-bhūtāny ahaṅkāra. The ahaṅkāra is very important thing. False ahaṅkāra and real ahaṅkāra. Ahaṅkāra means law of identity. "I am Indian," this is ahaṅkāra. "I am American," this is ahaṅkāra. "I am rich man," this is also ahaṅkāra. "I am poor man." There are so many ahaṅkāra, law of identification. So this ahaṅkāra is the basis of getting a type of body, and... This is the subtle basis, ahaṅkāra. Mano buddhir ahaṅkāra. There are eight material elements = bhūmir āpo analo vāyuḥ khāṁ mano buddhir eva ca [Bg. 7.4]. That is stated in the Seventh Chapter. This earth, water, fire, air, sky, mind, intelligence and ahaṅkāra. This is creating my different types of body.

Kṛṣṇa therefore says, mahā-bhūtāny ahaṅkāro buddhir avyaktam eva ca. Avyaktam means the total material substance. Just like when you construct a house there are heaps of materials---some stone, some cement, some woods, some iron---and you combine together... Tejo-vāri-mṛd-vinimayam. This whole world is exchange of three things = teja, fire, vāri, means water, and mṛt, means earth. So what is this Bombay city? The Bombay city is a heap of tejo-vāri-mṛd-vinimayaḥ. And... Here is one expert engineer, he knows how to mix these three things, tejo-vāri-mṛd-vinimayam, exchange. If there was no stock of tejo-vāri-mṛd-vinimayam, you could not build such a nice city. But who is supplying the ingredients? Can you create earth? No. Can you create water? No. You cannot create. You are simply working. You are simply working hard mixing them, that's all. Tejo vāri-mṛd-vinimayam. You cannot create. That is not possible. The creator is God. The creator is God. That is stated in the Seventh Chapter, prakṛtir me aṣṭadhā. Me, Kṛṣṇa says, "It is mine."

So this is called illusion. We are using Kṛṣṇa's property, but we are claiming "our." That is called illusion. Therefore śāstra says, Veda says, īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam [Īśo mantra 1] = "Everything belongs to God." You cannot create this big mass of water, sea, or ocean. That is not possible. Who has created? Somebody has created. That is stated in the śāstra. There is perspiration. This water is perspiration of Mahā-Viṣṇu. We can understand, because we are minute particle of Mahā-Viṣṇu, mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ [Bg. 15.7]. So sometimes we perspire and create some water, say, half an ounce water. But if somebody has unlimited power to perspire and create water, where is the difficulty to understand? There is no difficulty. If you take it for acceptance that this vast mass of water has come from the perspiration of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, so there is nothing to deny this fact. Acintya-śakti. Acintya-śakti means inconceivable power. We have got inconceivable power. Because we are minute particle of God, we have also minute inconceivable power. We do not know how the hairs are growing, but the energy is there within me. Similarly, so many things come out from the inconceivable power of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore Kṛṣṇa claims, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ khaṁ mano buddhir eva ca, prakṛtir me aṣṭadhā [Bg. 7.4]. Bhinnā prakṛtir me aṣṭadhā, "They are My separated energy."

So this whole earth is creation of these five elements, gross elements. So it is Kṛṣṇa's property. How we can claim, "This is our property"? That is illusion. We are claiming, "This portion is American," "This portion is Indian," "This portion is Pakistani," but we do not know that no portion belongs to us; everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa. For practical purpose, even if we accept that the whole world belongs to Kṛṣṇa, God, and we are sons of God, we have got right to use the property of father, so you can use. But the difficulty is that we are claiming that "This portion is mine, this portion is mine." But if we don't claim like that... Everything belongs to God. That is practical communism. If we accept the whole world as the property of God, make God-centered communism... The Russians, they are making the state-center communism. But if you make God center... That is Īśopaniṣad, īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam [Īśo mantra 1] = "Everything belongs to God." And everyone has... That is stated in the śāstra, that everything belongs to God, everything is property of God, and we can utilize. We can use that. Yāvad artha-prayojanam. As much as we require, we can take.

Just like the birds and beasts, they are living on nature's condition. The bird will go to a tree and eat some fruit, but not more than he requires; neither he will take the fruit at his home to stock for next day or for making black market. No. We have created all this nonsense situation by claiming God's property as ours. This is the mistake. But the rascal leaders, they do not know what mistake they have committed in the beginning. Stena eva sa ucyate [Bg. 3.12]. Everything belongs to God. Therefore everything should be employed in the service of God. This is our Kṛṣṇa consciousness philosophy. We do not think anything which has no connection with Kṛṣṇa. We take everything... Just like we are using this microphone. We do not think it is material. Because it is being used for Kṛṣṇa's purpose, therefore it is spiritual. That is the difference between material and spiritual. When you accept it as your own or for your own sense gratification, that is material. And if we accept everything as Kṛṣṇa's and you simply take Kṛṣṇa's prasādam, then it is spiritual.

We are not Māyāvādī philosophers, that we say, brahma satyaṁ jagan mithyā. No. Why jagat should be mithyā? If Kṛṣṇa is truth, God is truth, the jagat is also truth because it is the energy of Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa says, bhūmir āpo 'nalo vāyuḥ [Bg. 7.4]. Therefore our Gosvāmīs prescribed,

prapañcikatayā buddhyā
mumukṣubhiḥ parityago
phalgu vairāgyaṁ kathyate

[Brs. 1.2.256]

Prapañcikatayā buddhyā.

[loud sound of firecracker] [aside:] What is this sound?

Prapañcika-buddhyā, by accepting something as material, hari-sambandhī-vastunaḥ, but it has connection with Hari; so if we give it up, then it is phalgu-vairāgya. Just like this for land we are fighting, because we are thinking that "Kṛṣṇa has come here, Kṛṣṇa is seated here. It cannot be vacated." We are not thinking that it is a material thing. This is an example.

Just like Arjuna. Arjuna fought because he thought that "This war, this Kurukṣetra battle, is for the satisfaction of Kṛṣṇa." Kariṣye vacanaṁ tava [Bg. 18.73]. In the beginning, Arjuna denied to fight. He thought, "Why shall I fight with my kinsmen? Let them enjoy." But when he understood that "It is Kṛṣṇa's desire..." Nimitta-mātraṁ bhava savyasācin: "It is already planned." Kṛṣṇa said, "My dear Arjuna, you are thinking that you'll save your relatives, but you are wrong. It is already planned. Those who have come here, they must be killed. That is already My plan. You simply become a instrument." Nimitta-mātraṁ bhava savyasācin. So when Arjuna understood that "It is the Kṛṣṇa's plan. Then I am servant of Kṛṣṇa; I must satisfy Kṛṣṇa," Arjuna therefore asked..., Kṛṣṇa therefore asked Arjuna, "Now, after hearing My instruction in the Bhagavad-gītā, what you are going to do?" Kṛṣṇa said..., Arjuna replied, naṣṭo mohaḥ smṛtir labdhā: "My Lord Kṛṣṇa, my illusion is now over." Smṛtir labdhā, "I have got my remembrance. Everything belongs to You. For Your satisfaction everything must be done." Kariṣye vacanaṁ tava [Bg. 18.73]. "Yes, I'll fight."

This is Kṛṣṇa consciousness. So long you think it is for your satisfaction, that is material. And as soon as you think, as soon as you understand that everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa and everything should be used for the service of Kṛṣṇa, that is spiritual. That is the distinction between material and spiritual. There is nothing like that material..., spiritually something wonderful. But everything... Īśāvāsyam idaṁ sarvam [Īśo mantra 1]. If everything belongs to Kṛṣṇa, where is material? There is nothing material.

Everything is spiritual, but we do not know how to use it; therefore it is material. When you forget Kṛṣṇa, when you forget the proprietorship of Kṛṣṇa upon everything, that is material. Hari-sambandhe. Kṛṣṇa-sambandhe. Nirbandhaḥ kṛṣṇa-sambandhe yuktaṁ vairāgyam ucyate. This is the injunction of the Gosvāmīs, that we have to accept everything as Kṛṣṇa. That is the fact. And we are using everything without utilizing for Kṛṣṇa's purpose; therefore it is material. And in the Bhagavad-gītā it is said, stena eva sa ucyate [Bg. 3.12] = "He is thief. He is thief."

Yañārthāt karmano 'nyatra loko 'yaṁ karma-bandhanaḥ [Bg. 3.9]. As one man is criminal because he does not satisfy the state... What is the position of a criminal person? Because he disobeys the laws of the state, he is criminal. That is the distinction between a good citizen and a criminal citizen. One who does not obey the laws of the state, he is criminal. So everyone who does not obey the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, he is criminal. Stena eva sa ucyate. Stena eva sa... This is the verdict of the śāstra. Forgetfulness of Kṛṣṇa, or God, is materialism, and not to use things for Kṛṣṇa's satisfaction is criminality.

So people do not understand these things. Kṛṣṇa therefore explaining that "This body..." Mahā-bhūtāny ahaṅkāro buddhir avyaktaṁ eva ca indriyāṇi daśaikaṁ [commentary by Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa]. Indriyāṇi, these ten senses---five senses for acquiring knowledge and five senses for acting, ten---and the mind, ten and one, eleven... Indriyāṇi daśaikaṁ ca pañca cendriya-gocaraḥ [commentary by Baladeva Vidyābhūṣaṇa]. Indriya-gocaraḥ, the object of sense gratification, tan-mātra. Just like rūpa-rasa-gandha-śabda-sparśa. Beauty. Rūpa-rasa, taste. Rūpa-rasa-gandha, smell; śabda, sound; sparśa, touch.

These are the objects of enjoyment. Our eyes are there. We are hankering after seeing very beautiful things. Rūpa-rasa. The tongue is there. We are always trying to taste very nice eatables. Gandha. Nose is there. We want to smell very flavorable flowers and other things. In this way we have got indriyas, senses, and this body made of gross elements, and the ahaṅkāra and buddhi, buddhi, mano buddhir ahaṅkāraḥ, these are the subtle body. In this way this kṣetra, this body, is combination of all these things. Combination of all these things.

Now it is very...

mahā-bhūtāny ahaṅkāro
buddhir avyaktam eva ca
indriyāṇi daśaikaṁ ca
pañca cendriya-gocaraḥ

[Bg. 13.6]

Icchā-dveṣa. This is the icchā-dveṣa, action of the mind---willing, feeling. Icchā-dveṣa. Sometimes we like something, sometimes we do not like. This is called icchā-dveṣa. Iccha dveṣa-samutthena sarge yānti parantapa [Bg. 7.27]. We take birth within this material world according to icchā and dveṣa. These two things are there. Something we like, something we do not like.

icchā-dveṣaḥ sukhaṁ duḥkhaṁ
saṅghāṭaś cetanā dhṛtiḥ
etat kṣetraṁ samāsena
sa-vikāram udāhṛtam

[Bg. 13.7]

This is the combination of all these things that has made this body.

So the composition is very subtle. Good chemists, they can understand how, by combining different elements, they can produce something. So these chemical products of this body is described by Kṛṣṇa very nicely, gross chemical and subtle chemical. But I am different from this. That is knowledge. I am different from this combination. But that we do not know. That is ignorance. I am thinking that "I am this combination," and I am thinking, "Wherefrom this combination has come into being, that is my place." That is described in the śāstras, yasyātmā-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu bhauma ijya-dhīḥ [SB 10.84.13]. Bhauma ijya-dhīḥ. The chemicals comes from the earth. So everything in my body, they have come from these material elements, and I'm identifying, "This place is mine because my this body is born out of these elements." That is going on as nationalism. Bhauma iḍya-dhīḥ. Bhauma iḍya-dhīḥ. They'll not prefer worshiping Kṛṣṇa. They'll prefer worshiping that land from which this body has emanated. Bhauma idya-dhiḥ.

So śāstra says, "Anyone who identifies this body as self," yasyātmā-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke... This body is made of three dhātu, kapha, pitta, vāyu, according to Āyurveda system. Kapha, mucus, and bile. Kapha pitta vāyu. Yasyātmā-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu [SB 10.84.13]. And kinsmen, my own persons, sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu, wife, and production from the wife, children. Or dynasty, family, community. Sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu. Yasyātmā-buddhiḥ kuṇape tri-dhātuke sva-dhīḥ kalatrādiṣu bhauma ijya-dhīḥ. And that land, "This is my birthplace. This is worshipable." Yat-tīrtha-buddhiḥ salile na karhicij. And they go to the places, holy places of pilgrimage, tīrtha-buddhiḥ salile.

Just like somebody goes to Haridwar, Vṛndāvana. They finish their tīrtha, going, taking so much trouble. Just like in Calcutta there is Ganges, but people will go to Haridwar for taking bath in the Ganges there. Why it is prescribed? Not for the Ganges. The Ganges is there already in Calcutta. But if you go to a holy place, you'll find saintly person. That is required. But if you simply go to the holy places and take bath in the water and finish your business... No. That is not recommended. Tīrtha, going to tīrtha, means to find out a learned saintly person and take knowledge from him. That is tīrtha.

Therefore it is said, yat-tīrtha-buddhiḥ salile na karhicij janeṣv abhijñeṣu. Those who are expert giving in knowledge, we should associate. Satāṁ prasaṅgān mama vīrya-samvido bhavanti hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanaḥ kathāḥ [SB 3.25.25]. If we associate with saintly persons and hear from them Bhagavad-gītā and other Vedic literatures, then hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanaḥ kathāḥ, it becomes appealing to the heart, hṛt, and pleasing to the ear. Hṛt-karṇa-rasāyanaḥ kathāḥ taj-joṣaṇād. And if you bring them into practical purposes, apply in your life, then śraddhā bhaktir ratir anukramiṣyati. Then gradually you'll become faithful to the Supreme. Śraddhā bhaktir. You'll develop your natural instincts of devotional service. Śraddhā bhaktir ratir, attachment; anukramiṣyati, one after another. This is the process.

Unfortunately, we are not taking advantage of these prerogatives of human life. We are simply engaged like cats and dogs for utilizing our life eating, sleeping, sex life and defense. Āhāra-nidrā-bhaya-maithunaṁ ca sāmānyam etat paśubhir narānām [Hitopadeśa 25]. These demands of the body---eating, sleeping, sex life and defense---that is there in the animal life. Then where is the difference between the animal life and human life unless you become inquisitive to know, athāto brahma jijñāsā? Therefore Vedānta-sūtra says that this life is meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth, tattva-jijñāsā. Jīvasya tattva-jijñāsā. In the Bhāgavata also says. Athāto brahma jijñāsā.

So this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement is awakening the dormant inquiry of the human society to inquire, "What I am? What is God? What is my relationship with God? Why I have come here in this material world? What is the reason? Why I am suffering? I don't want to die, but why death is forced upon me?" These are the questions to be solved in human life. Not the economic development. There is no question of economic development. Everyone is taken care by the mercy of God. Just like we are human beings. We are only 400,000 species, forms. But out of 8,400,000 species, the 8,000,000s forms of life, birds, beasts, they are taking care. There is no economic development program. They are eating very nicely. In Africa there are millions of elephants. They are eating very nicely. There is no question of scarcity of food. So why don't you think like that? Tasyaiva hetoḥ prayeteta kovido na labhyate yad bhramatām upary adhaḥ [SB 1.5.18].

Therefore human life is simply meant for inquiring about the Absolute Truth, not for engaging oneself for this so-called economic development. That is already there by God's arrangement. Actually, I am wandering all over the world. There are immense space in this planet also. In Africa, in Australia, ten times of the population can be accommodated, and they can produce their food. But the īśāvāsya...

We have forgotten that everything belongs to God. We are thinking, "It is my land. You cannot come here. It is my land. You cannot come here." This mismanagement of the human society is the cause of all troubles, all problems. Therefore the human society must have Kṛṣṇa consciousness to solve all the problems of life.

Thank you very much.

Devotees: Jaya. All glories to Śrīla Prabhupāda. [end]