Bhagavad-gītā 16.2–7 , Bombay , 1971-04-08
tyāgaḥ śāntir apaiśunam
dayā bhūteṣv aloluptvaṁ
mārdavaṁ hrīr acāpalam
bhavanti sampadaṁ daivīm
These qualities have been discussed. They are called daiva, godly qualities. And nongodly qualities, demonic qualities:
krodhaḥ pāruṣyam eva ca
pārtha sampadam āsurīm
Then He explains that "If you develop your godly characteristics, then you make progress toward liberation." Daivī sampad vimokṣāya [Bg. 16.5]. Vimokṣa. Vimokṣa means liberation. This word vimokṣa is very significant. Mokṣa means liberation. And why this word vi? Vi means viśeṣa, "specifically." Specifically mokṣa.
There are two kinds of mokṣas. Actually, there are five kinds of mokṣa, but five kinds can be divided into two kinds. Liberation... Sāyujya, sāmīpya, sālokya, sārūpya, sārṣṭi [Cc. Madhya 6.266]. Then again, these five kinds of liberations can be divided into two. One is sāyujya-mukti and another: sārūpya, sālokya, sārṣṭi, sāmīpya—these four into one division. Sāyujya-mukti means to merge into the existence of the Supreme.
And sārūpya-mukti means to acquire exactly the bodily feature of Viṣṇu, four hands. Just like in the Vaikuṇṭha the inhabitants are exactly of the same feature as Nārāyaṇa. They have got also four hands. You cannot distinguish who is Nārāyaṇa and who is not Nārāyaṇa. So that is called sārūpya-mukti. Just like when vaikuṇṭha-dūtas were sent to reclaim Ajāmila, they were four-handed, exactly looking like Nārāyaṇa.
It can be understood: Just in this planet, if the president of the Indian Union comes here, unless he is very well known, nobody can distinguish who is president and who is a common gentleman, because the features are the same. Similarly, in the Vaikuṇṭhaloka, the residents of Vaikuṇṭha are exactly like Nārāyaṇa. Sārūpya-mukti.
Sālokya-mukti. Sālokya-mukti means to live in the same planets where God is living, Nārāyaṇa is living. And sārṣṭi, you acquire the same opulence as Nārāyaṇa has got opulences. And sāmīpya. Sāmīpya means to remain always with Nārāyaṇa as associates. Just like Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa has His associates. Kṛṣṇa, when He appeared on this material world, He had His eternal associates: the cowherds boys, the gopīs. They're always with Kṛṣṇa. That is called sāmīpya. They are never away from Kṛṣṇa.
It is possible. Everyone can attain. Kṛṣṇa comes down on this planet to exhibit His vṛndāvana-līlā just to attract us that anyone can have the same facilities, to play with Kṛṣṇa, to talk with Kṛṣṇa. That is described in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
dāsyaṁ gatānāṁ para-daivatena
sākaṁ vijahruḥ kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ
Śukadeva Gosvāmī is describing the Kṛṣṇa and His friends, cowherds boys, playing together. So he is remarking that "These boys who are playing with Kṛṣṇa, they are not ordinary boys, because they are playing with..." Itthaṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā. Itthaṁ satāṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā: "They are playing with the Absolute Truth, who is realized by the great sages as the impersonal Brahman."
There are different features of the Absolute Truth: impersonal Brahman, localized Paramātmā and Personality of Godhead. So those who are attached to impersonal Brahman... Śukadeva Gosvāmī says that these boys who are playing with Kṛṣṇa... Kṛṣṇa is brahma-sukhānubhūtyā, the origin of brahma-sukha. It is also stated in the Bhagavad-gītā, brahmaṇaḥ ahaṁ pratiṣṭhā: "The Brahman, the impersonal Brahman, is situated on Me." Because Brahman is the bodily effulgence of Kṛṣṇa. Yasya prabhā prabhavato jagad-aṇḍa-koṭiḥ [Bs. 5.40]. Therefore Śukadeva Gosvāmī says that "These boys, they are not ordinary boys. They are playing with the Supreme Brahman." Itthaṁ satāṁ brahma-sukhānubhūtyā.
And dāsyaṁ gatānāṁ para-daivatena. And those who are devotees, those who have taken their position as eternal servant of God, dāsyaṁ gatānām, for them, He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For the impersonalists, He is the Supreme Brahman. And for the personalists, devotees, He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
And māyāśritānāṁ nara-dārakeṇa. And those who are under the influence of the illusory energy, māyā, for them, this Kṛṣṇa is ordinary boy. Māyāśritānām. They cannot see Kṛṣṇa. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam [Bg. 9.11]. Those who are mūḍhas, not sufficient knowledge, poor fund of knowledge, they accept Kṛṣṇa as ordinary person.
So therefore... Bhāgavata also says māyāśritānāṁ nara-dārakeṇa: "Those who are under the protection of māyā, illusory energy, for them Kṛṣṇa is ordinary person or human being." But these boys are playing, kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ [SB 10.12.11]. Kṛta-puṇya-puñjāḥ. Puñjāḥ means stock, huge stock of pious activities. Therefore they have come to the position, directly playing with Kṛṣṇa. They have become associates. So that is possible. Anyone can become direct associates of Kṛṣṇa. That is called sāmīpya-mukti: always with Kṛṣṇa. Whenever Kṛṣṇa appears, they also appear.
So there are two kinds of muktis also. So far sāyujya-mukti is concerned, that is not very sure. [aside:] What is this sound? [thumping sound like drum or machine in background] Sāyujya-mukti, one who takes liberation of merging into the existence of the Supreme Absolute Truth, that is not very secure position, because they may fall down again to the material world.
That is also stated in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam: āruhya kṛcchreṇa paraṁ padaṁ tataḥ patanty adho 'nādṛta-yuṣmad-aṅghrayaḥ [SB 10.2.32]. These impersonalists, after undergoing severe austerities... To come to the Brahman platform, impersonal Brahman platform, that is also not very easy. One has to undergo severe austerities, tapasya. Nothing can be achieved with[out] tapasya. Any kind of liberation cannot be achieved without tapasya. That is the verdict of all Vedic literature. You cannot make it very easily accessible, but for this age it is easily accessible. Because these people are not so advanced, therefore śāstra gives them a little concession.
Just like in the race, the horse which is weak, it gives..., some concession is given. And those who are strong, they are overloaded. Similarly, because the people of this age are not very strong, spiritually inclined, therefore for this particular age of Kali the tapasya has been, I mean to say, decreased. Just like these boys and girls. The tapasya means they have simply given up some bad habits: no illicit sex life, no intoxication, no meat-eating, no gambling. That's all. Very easy. Now, you can see this is tapasya. And chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra twenty-four hours. This is the tapasya for Kali-yuga. Kalau nāsty eva nāsty eva nāsty eva.
Any other means of meditation, offering sacrifices, or worshiping the Deity in the temple, these are difficult task, especially in this age. Kalau tad dhari-kīrtanāt [SB 12.3.52]. In this age, simply by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare/ Hare Rāma, Hare Rāma, Rāma Rāma, Hare Hare, one can very easily make advance in spiritual life.
And you can see how these boys and girls, those who are coming from Western countries, although they had many misgivings in their past life, now they are pure. Only [on] account of chanting this Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. This is... They are now developing the daivī sampat. Daivī sampat means the characteristics by which they can make very easy progress for liberation and spiritual realization. That is called daivī sampat.
As soon as one becomes a devotee, this daivī sampat automatically becomes manifest. Yasyāsti bhaktir bhagavaty akiñcanā sarvair guṇais tatra samāsate surāḥ [SB 5.18.12]. As soon as one develops his original, dormant love of God, or Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then all the good qualities becomes manifest. Because the good qualities are already there. This is the process. People are trying to make people very honest. But how they can be honest? Unless there is Kṛṣṇa consciousness, it is very difficult to become honest.
Harāv abhaktasya kuto mahad-guṇāḥ. Mahad-guṇāḥ, good qualities, good characteristics, good behavior, moral qualities, cannot be developed if one is not Kṛṣṇa conscious. That is not possible. If people are simply paid to be Kṛṣṇa conscious, then the state will save so much expense. Because they have to maintain huge establishment to stop criminal activities. But if people become devotees, there will be no more criminal activities. That's a fact.
Therefore it is the duty of everyone to train everyone. Just like the parents: they should train their children to become Kṛṣṇa conscious. The state should encourage how people can become Kṛṣṇa conscious. Then automatically all the good qualities will come. Now, actually, in the United States the government is realizing the importance of our Movement, because the government has failed to stop this intoxication habit, LSD.
In the Western countries, the younger generation are becoming too much addicted to this intoxication, LSD habit, and it has become a problem to the government, and they have established so many institutions to stop this habit, but they have failed. But they are seeing wonderful result amongst our camp, that simply coming to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, they have given all intoxication. It is practical. They have given up.
So some of the institutions, government, they are inviting us, that "How you can help?" So we say that "Our process is simple. We cannot take any other process. Our process is that if anyone wants to be cured from this bad habit, then let him come, live with us. That's all. Sit down here. Chant Hare Kṛṣṇa mantra. See the ārati and take prasādam." And there is no... We don't supply any tea or coffee. No. We cannot supply. And nobody grudges also, that "You are not supplying us tea or coffee or cigarettes." No.
So the spiritual power is so nice that automatically forgets. Paraṁ dṛṣṭvā nivartate [Bg. 2.59], as it is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. If you find something very palatable, very nice, then you give up the bad thing. If you are offered a nice rasagullā, why should you take ordinary molasses or gur or anything else? Paraṁ dṛṣṭvā nivartate. That is the formula given by Lord Kṛṣṇa. When one relishes a transcendental pleasure, he automatically gives up the so-called material pleasure. Automatically.
So therefore Kṛṣṇa is stressing that daivī sampad vimokṣāya. These daivī sampad characteristics should be encouraged to make one liberated, vimokṣāya. Just like these boys and girls have become liberated from all bad habits. Daivī sampad vimokṣāya. Daivī sampad vimokṣāya nibandhāyāsurī matā. And if you develop demonic qualities, then you become more and more entangled in this material existence.
It is very risky. We are thinking that "Let me enjoy this life to my best capacity," as the atheist class of people think, but they do not know how much risk they are taking. If I develop my characteristic like cats and dogs, then my next life is becoming bound up in the body of cats and dogs. But they do not know the science. How the transmigration of the soul is evolving in 8,400,000 species of life, the modern science they do not know. They do not know. But there is..., there is law.
guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ
kartāham iti manyate
We have come to this civilized form of human being. Especially we have taken birth in India, it is a good fortune. It is an opportunity given by prakṛti. Prakṛteḥ kriyamāṇāni guṇaiḥ karmāṇi sarvaśaḥ. So we should take advantage of this opportunity. Here in India we have got this sublime knowledge of Veda, and here there are still thousands and thousands of saintly persons. So we should take advantage of this facility.
Caitanya Mahāprabhu therefore said that "Anyone who has taken birth in the land of Bhārata-varṣa..." Bhārata-bhūmite manuṣya janma haila yāra [Cc. Ādi 9.41]: "Anyone who has taken birth in this land of Bhārata-varṣa," janma sārthaka kari' kara para-upakāra: "first of all make your life perfect by taking advantage of this Vedic facility, and then distribute this knowledge all over the world." This is injunction. This is the mission of Lord Caitanya.
So it is practically being utilized in this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement. We are giving the knowledge, this knowledge, to the Western world in different ways. For the mass of people simply by chanting, making them purified. And the class of people, we have got books. We have got many important books. Let them understand our philosophy with, I mean to say, scientific knowledge, with philosophical visions.
Not that we are simply sentimentalists, simply dancing. We have got... Dancing is not sentimental; it is spiritual ecstasy. It is not ordinary dancing. This dancing is not ordinary dancing. So anyway, if you think that this dancing is a sentimental caricature, you may think like that; but if you want to understand through philosophy and science, we can supply you immense literature.
So this is the duty. This is the duty of all responsible Indians, how to make his life perfect, utilizing Vedic knowledge, and then distribute it throughout the whole world. Because in other parts of the world they have no such advantage. Why these American boys are coming to us? Because they did not get the advantage of spiritual life, but they are seeking after spiritual life. Athāto brahma jijñāsā.
They are fed up with this materialistic way of life. They want something spiritual. But because there is no such information, there is no such leader, they are becoming hippies—frustrated, confused. And because here is something substantial, they are taking it. This is the secret of success of this Kṛṣṇa consciousness movement.
So here it is clearly stated, daivī sampad vimokṣāya. If you do not develop your godly qualities, then there is no question of liberation. It is not a fashion, that you do anything nonsense and simply take as Vedānta and talk while smoking, and you become liberated. It is not so easy. It is not so easy. You have to form your Vedānta character; then you can understand this philosophy.
bhajante māṁ dṛḍha-vratāḥ
So those who come to Kṛṣṇa consciousness, they are not ordinary persons, because Kṛṣṇa says personally who can come to Him: te dvandva-moha-nirmuktā bhajante māṁ dṛḍha-vratāḥ. Dṛḍha-vrata means with firm conviction that simply by devotional service to Kṛṣṇa, simply by becoming Kṛṣṇa conscious, one becomes perfect in all respects. This is called faith. This is called faith. Yeṣāṁanta-gataṁ pāpaṁ janānāṁ puṇya-karmaṇām, te dvandva-moha-nirmuktāḥ. Duality.
Our position in this dual world is we are always doubtful. Kṛṣṇa says, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg. 18.66], but we are doubtful. That is material influence. "How it is that simply by surrendering to Kṛṣṇa I become free from all material contamination or sinful activities, results?" Doubt. But actually, you should not be doubtful. You should accept. Because Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, you should accept His word as it is. And because we are doubtful, we are presenting Kṛṣṇa in a different way. And there are so many commentators, so many svāmīs, they put Kṛṣṇa in a different way.
But Kṛṣṇa is Kṛṣṇa. Law of identity. You cannot comment on the Kṛṣṇa's personality. He says that "I am the Supreme Personality of Godhead." Mattaḥ parataraṁ nānyat kiñcid asti dhanañjaya [Bg. 7.7]: "There is no more superior authority than Me." We accept that. Then we can understand Bhagavad-gītā and take advantage of it; otherwise not possible.
And that requires daivī sampat, godly characteristics. So those godly characteristics are there. Either you practice yourself to come to the godly characteristics or there is simple method: if you take to devotional service, all the godly qualities automatically come. This is the process.
So in this age, to develop these godly qualities is very difficult. But if you take to Kṛṣṇa consciousness by the simple method, by chanting Hare Kṛṣṇa, Hare Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa Kṛṣṇa, Hare Hare, then automatically you develop all the godly qualities.
mā śucaḥ sampadaṁ daivīm
abhijāto 'si pāṇḍava
Now, Arjuna is encouraged, because Arjuna was thinking in the terms of material calculation. Just like Gandhi introduced this nonviolence. That is material calculation. It is all right. To become nonviolent is good qualification. But from spiritual calculation... Spiritual calculation means that surrendering unto Kṛṣṇa, and then act.
The difference between bhakti-yoga and ordinary karma is this: that when one's senses are purified under the direction of Kṛṣṇa or His representative, that is bhakti. Hṛṣīkeṇa hṛṣīkeśa-sevanaṁ bhaktir ucyate. What is bhakti? Sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ tat-paratvena nirmalam [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. One has to become purified, sarvopādhi-vinirmukta.
At the present moment we are encumbered with different types of designations: "I am Indian," "I am Christian," "I am Hindu," "I am Muslim," "I am this," "I am that." They are all upādhis. But when one comes to the understanding that "I am eternally servant of Kṛṣṇa," that is liberation. That is sarvopādhi-vinirmuktaṁ tat-paratvena nirmalam [Cc. Madhya 19.170]. Being identified with Kṛṣṇa's interest, he becomes nirmalam. That is mukti. Nirmalam means mukti. So long we are contaminated, we are not mukta; we are conditioned. And as soon as we become nirmalam, that means mukti.
These things I have several times explained, in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam also, what is mukti. Mukti means to be situated in his original position. That is mukti. Just like a man is diseased, and if you say that "Now he is relieved from the diseased condition," that is mukti. Now he's healthy condition. That is mukti. Mukti means change of the condition. That is mukti. Not that something extraordinary happens. The change of condition.
The baddha condition, this... The material condition of life means that we are embarrassed with so many plans and concoction for sense gratification. That is not mukti. That is the stage of nonliberated position. And mukti means to be situated in his original position. That is mukti. Muktir hitvā anyathā rūpam. Hitvā anyathā rūpam.
What [is] that anyathā rūpam? Anyathā means "otherwise." Every one one of us acting otherwise. Somebody is acting that "I am Pakistani," "I am East Pakistani," "I am West Pakistani. Let us fight." Anyathā rūpam. A few days before they were all Pakistani. When there was fighting between India and Pakistan, they were all united. Now they have changed their..., another anyathā rūpam, that "I am Eastern Pakistani," "I am Western Pakistani." In this way, so long you are contaminated, you change your mind, you will change your position. But it's not that real position. Unless you come to the real position.
The real position is, as Kṛṣṇa says, that mamaivāṁśo jīva-bhūtaḥ [Bg. 15.7]: "All living entities are My parts and parcel." When you realize it that "I am part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa; therefore my only business is to serve Kṛṣṇa..." Just like part and parcel of my body is always serving, similarly, we, being part and parcel of Kṛṣṇa, our only business is to be engaged in devotional service of Kṛṣṇa. That is mukti. Svarūpeṇa vyavasthitiḥ [SB 2.10.6].
So here Kṛṣṇa is encouraging Arjuna, mā śucaḥ: "Don't think that because I am engaging you to fight, don't think that you are demonic person." Because generally, people take, when one fights, he is considered to be violent demon. But Kṛṣṇa has already encouraged Arjuna to fight, but here He says that "These are the godly qualities." Apaiśunam, nonviolence, ahiṁsā kṣāntir ārjavam, ahiṁsā. These things have been stated.
So because Arjuna is Kṛṣṇa's very intimate and dear friend, immediately He says... As soon as He says that daivī sampad vimokṣāya nibandhāyāsurī matā [Bg. 16.5]. Āsurī matā. This asurika fighting or asurika qualities is the cause of being entangled in this material existence. So that Arjuna may be thinking that "I am fighting. I am also in asurika sampat." So Kṛṣṇa [is] immediately encouraging him, mā śucaḥ. Mā śucaḥ sampadaṁ daivīm abhijāto 'si bhārata: "Don't think that you are in the asurika sampat." Why? He was fighting. He was killing. Why Kṛṣṇa says that "You are in the daivī sampat"? The thing is that he is fighting not for himself; he is fighting for Kṛṣṇa. That is the secret. He was fighting for Kṛṣṇa.
Personally he was not inclined to fight. Nonviolent. "No, Kṛṣṇa. I cannot fight. I cannot kill my brothers and the grandfather and so many relatives on the other side. I cannot." That was his personal consideration. But when the consideration is in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, fighting for Kṛṣṇa, that is daivī sampad. So the summary is that if anyone is in Kṛṣṇa consciousness actually, not by concoction, by imagination, actually, then whatever he does, that is daivī sampat. Whatever he does, that is daivī sampat. Mā nimittaṁ kṛtaṁ pāpaṁ puṇyāya eva kalpate.[?]
There are so many examples. We can cite some of them. Just like the gopīs. The gopīs at dead of night, when Kṛṣṇa's flute was being played... The gopīs were young girls. So immediately they give up their all engagement. Some of them were taking care of the children, some of them were cooking, some of them giving food to the husband. So many engagement. But they gave up any, everything, and immediately went to Kṛṣṇa.
Kṛṣṇa advised them, "Oh, at dead of night you have come here? You have given up? This is not good for you. Please return. " Those who have read Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, these things are there. Now, for young woman to leave family and, I mean to say, home and go to the forest for another person, it is most abominable, sinful, in the ordinary eyes. Sinful.
But because it was done for Kṛṣṇa, even Lord Caitanya says, ramya kācid upāsanā vraja-vadhu-vargeṇa ya kalpita [Caitanya-manjusa]: "What can be the best type of worship than what was comprehended by the gopīs?" So in the ordinary way, if a young man, young woman, goes to another person for dancing or some other purpose, that is most sinful. But this is to be understood.
Another example can be given: just like Prahlāda Mahārāja. Prahlāda Mahārāja was so much harassed by his father, Hiraṇya..., Hiraṇyakaśipu, and Lord Nṛsiṁhadeva appeared. And in the presence of Prahlāda Mahārāja, the father was killed. What is that prayer?
keśava dhṛta-narahari-rūpa jaya jagadīśa hare
[Śrī Daśaratha Stotra 4]
So now, from materialistic point of view, you will see that Prahlāda Mahārāja, what kind of devotee he is? In his presence his father is being killed, and he did not protest.
So from the ordinary point of view, it is sinful. If your father is attacked by somebody, it is your duty. But Prahlāda Mahārāja didn't... Because Prahlāda Mahārāja knew... That is another chapter. In the later stage he made his father liberated. But from the superficial point of view, that he was present while his father was being killed... There are so many things, similar, other examples. Bali Mahārāja gave up his spiritual master for Kṛṣṇa's sake.
So here also the same example can be cited, that Kṛṣṇa says personally, mā śucaḥ sampadaṁ daivīm abhijāto 'si bhārata: "My dear Arjuna, don't be worried that you are in the demonic situation. Your situation is daivika, godly." Why it is godly? Because although Arjuna was fighting—it was violent—because the fight was on account of Kṛṣṇa, therefore it is good. Otherwise how you can support? He was engaged in killing business and it is called daivī sampat.
Then He explains,
daiva āsura eva ca
daivo vistaraśaḥ prokta
āsuraṁ pārtha me śṛṇu
That "I have very vividly described what are the godly quali..., characteristics. Now I shall explain to you what are the demonic characteristics." Pravṛttiṁ ca nivṛttiṁ ca janā na vidur āsurāḥ [Bg. 16.7]. Who is a demon? A demon's first qualification is he does not know what is, I mean to say, real duty, or what one should do and what one should not do.
[break] ...pravṛtti. Pravṛtti and nivṛtti. There are two kinds of activities, pravṛtti. So if one does not know what kind of activities one can accept and what kind of activities one should reject, if he does not know, then he is a asura, demon. [break] [end]