Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Madhya-līlā 20.313–317 , New York , 1966-12-22


harir hi nirguṇaḥ sākṣāt
puruṣaḥ prakṛteḥ paraḥ
sa sarva-dṛg upadraṣṭā
taṁ bhajan nirguṇo bhavet

[Cc Madhya 20.313]

[Śrī Hari, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is situated beyond the range of material nature; therefore He is the supreme transcendental person. He can see everything inside and outside; therefore He is the supreme overseer of all living entities. If someone takes shelter at His lotus feet and worships Him, he also attains a transcendental position.]

Nirguṇo bhavet. The liberation from material bondage is called nirguṇa. Nirguṇa means the three qualities, three modes of material nature, is nullified. As soon as we are transcendental to the three modes of material nature, that is called liberation.

So just like there is injunction in the Vedic literature: to live in the city is rājasika; to live in the forest is sattvika, goodness. Sattvika quality means to live in goodness is to live in a forest. Therefore formerly, all the sages and saints, they used to live in a forest. Still there are many transcendentalist, they live in the forest, because forest is considered to be situation in goodness. Similarly, those who live in cities and villages, in society, human society, that is rājasika. And those who live in the liquor shop and similar, gambling shop and other, they are called tamasika.

So this goodness, passion and ignorance, the division. And how to nirguṇa? When you live in a temple of Kṛṣṇa, that is nirguṇa. That is transcendental. So if you live in a society like this, Kṛṣṇa consciousness, then you are nirguṇa. You are above the qualities. It is far better than to live in the forest or in the city. Those who are in touch with the supreme nirguṇa... Nirguṇa means transcendental to the material modes of nature. So nirguṇo bhavet.

Sa sarva-dṛg. Harir hi nirguṇaḥ sākṣāt. Nirguṇa means only Viṣṇu is nirguṇa, above the transcendental, above these material modes of nature. It is accepted by all the authorities. Even Śaṅkarācārya, he says, nārāyaṇaḥ paraḥ avyaktāt. Avyakta. So far this material nature, manifested and nonmanifested, what we see, this is manifested. And then it is... Nonmanifested stage is there, covering, covering of the universe. Oh, then that space is far, far greater than, ten times greater than this space. That is avyakta.

And above that avyakta stage... Avyakta means nonmanifested. Vyakta avyakta. This is vyakta, this is manifested. Certain space is manifested, and certain space is nonmanifested. So this is called vyakta and avyakta. Śaṅkarācārya says that Nārāyaṇa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is vyaktāvyaktāt sanātanaḥ [Bg 8.20].

[Yet there is another nature, which is eternal and is transcendental to this manifested and unmanifested matter. It is supreme and is never annihilated. When all in this world is annihilated, that part remains as it is.]

Similarly, it is confirmed in the Bhagavad-gītā also. So Nārāyaṇa, the Supreme Lord, Kṛṣṇa, Viṣṇu, He is God. He is nirguṇa, transcendental to these three guṇas. They cannot affect. The three guṇas cannot affect. So similarly, those who are in touch with Kṛṣṇa, in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, they are also nirguṇa. They are also transcendental to the three material modes of nature. This is from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, quotation by Lord Caitanya.

So we have to accept these authorities, quotation from Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, Vedic literature, and quoted by authority, Lord Caitanya. We have to follow in that way. Mahājano yena gataḥ sa panthāḥ [Cc Madhya 17.186].

[Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu continued, ”’Dry arguments are inconclusive. A great personality whose opinion does not differ from others is not considered a great sage. Simply by studying the Vedas, which are variegated, one cannot come to the right path by which religious principles are understood. The solid truth of religious principles is hidden in the heart of an unadulterated, self-realized person. Consequently, as the śāstras confirm, one should accept whatever progressive path the mahājanas advocate.’]

Therefore we have to accept this, that if we be engaged in devotional service of the Supreme Lord, then we are transcendental to these material modes of nature. Therefore anyone who is so engaged, he is liberated. He is liberated. Officially he is liberated. But if he falls down by the attraction of these three modes of nature, that is a different thing. That is possible.

That is possible if we are not strong enough, because... Always remember that this Kṛṣṇa consciousness is a sort of declaration of war with this illusory material nature. So there is war. She will always try to get you fall down. Daivī hy eṣā guṇa-mayī mama māyā duratyayā [Bg 7.14].

[This divine energy of Mine, consisting of the three modes of material nature, is difficult to overcome. But those who have surrendered unto Me can easily cross beyond it.]

It is very strong, powerful. How you can save yourself? Mām eva ye prapadyante māyām etāṁ taranti te. If you persistently simply adhere to the devotional service of Kṛṣṇa, there will be no more strength of this illusory nature to drag you. No more. There will be no more power to get you into this province of sense gratification.

Material nature means the jurisdiction of sense gratification. That's all. Simply people are engaged like sense gratification like cats and dogs. That's all. This is material atmosphere. And in the spiritual atmosphere there is no sense gratification; there is only activity for satisfying the Supreme, Kṛṣṇa. That is the difference.

So if you adherently be always engaged in some sort of service, twenty-four hours in the service of the Supreme Lord Kṛṣṇa in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, there is no power in the world who can drag you into this sense gratification province. That at once becomes nirguṇa. This is the process. So we have to stick to this principle: "How I can serve Kṛṣṇa always, always?" Īhā yasya harer dāsye. If you cannot do, if you simply think, "How can I do? How can I do? How can I do?" simply this, if you practically cannot do, but if you simply think that "How can I do?" oh, then also you become liberated. Then also you become liberated. And what to speak of when we actually serve. This is such a nice thing, Kṛṣṇa consciousness. So if you want to save yourself from this material turmoil, then always stick to this Kṛṣṇa consciousness persistently. Yes.

pālanārtha svāṁśa viṣṇu-rūpe avatāra
sattva-guṇa draṣṭā, tāte guṇa-māyā-pāra

[Cc Madhya 20.314]

[For the maintenance of the universe, Lord Kṛṣṇa descends as His personal plenary expansion in the form of Viṣṇu. He is the director of the mode of goodness; therefore He is transcendental to the material energy.]

svarūpa—aiśvarya-pūrṇa, kṛṣṇa-sama prāya
kṛṣṇa aṁśī, teṅho aṁśa, vede hena gāya

[Cc Madhya 20.315]

[Lord Viṣṇu is in the category of svāṁśa because He has opulences almost equal to Kṛṣṇa’s. Kṛṣṇa is the original person, and Lord Viṣṇu is His personal expansion. This is the verdict of all Vedic literatures.]

Now, these Viṣṇu, Kṣīrodakaśāyī Viṣṇu, although He is in this material world... There is a planet—I have already explained to you—it is called Kṣīrodaka planet, or where the oceans are of milk ocean. So in that planet Lord Viṣṇu is there, within. But He is not within this material world. Just like even a devotee who is always engaged in Kṛṣṇa consciousness, he is not in this material world, how Viṣṇu, the Supreme, He can be in the material world? He is not in the material world.

Just like outside there may be snow falling, but inside, if you are protected by heating system and other thing, you are not affected. The whole city may be overwhelmed by snow falling, but if you are protected by certain means and adjustment, then you are not affected. Similarly, Viṣṇu and viṣṇu-bhakta, they are not affected by this material nature. Avajānanti māṁ mūḍhā mānuṣīṁ tanum āśritam [Bg 9.11].

[Fools deride Me when I descend in the human form. They do not know My transcendental nature and My supreme dominion over all that be.]

Therefore foolish creatures, when they see Kṛṣṇa is here, they think that "Kṛṣṇa is like one of us." But He is not. So here it is stated, pālanārtha svāṁśa viṣṇu-rūpe avatāra. He is providing. Bhūta-bhṛt. Kṛṣṇa's name or Viṣṇu's another name is Bhūta-bhṛt. He is providing our necessities. Always know that. This is also another knowledge. Don't think that you are producing your foodstuff, you are producing your necessities. No. You cannot do anything. He is providing. God is giving you. God is giving you. So you should always remember that pālanārtha.

Eko bahūnāṁ vidadhāti kāmān

[Kaṭha Upaniṣad 2.2.13].

[The Supreme Lord is eternal and the living beings are eternal. The Supreme Lord is cognizant and the living beings are cognizant. The difference is that the Supreme Lord is supplying all the necessities of life for the many other living entities.]

Eko, that one supreme eternal, He is providing all the necessities of so many, innumerable living entities. Don't you see? We are mad after economic development from morning to late at night. In our cars, in our trucks we are going hither and thither. But there are many, many millions of living creatures; they have no economic problem. Who is providing them? Who is providing them? Providing, Kṛṣṇa is providing them. Viṣṇu is providing them.

pālanārtha svāṁśa viṣṇu-rūpe avatāra
sattva-guṇa draṣṭā tāte māyā-guṇa-pāra

[Cc Madhya 20.314]

[For the maintenance of the universe, Lord Kṛṣṇa descends as His personal plenary expansion in the form of Viṣṇu. He is the director of the mode of goodness; therefore He is transcendental to the material energy.]

He is, although in this material world, He is transcendentally situated. He has nothing to do with this material world.

svarūpa—aiśvarya-pūrṇa, kṛṣṇa-sama prāya

[Cc Madhya 20.315]

[Lord Viṣṇu is in the category of svāṁśa because He has opulences almost equal to Kṛṣṇa’s. Kṛṣṇa is the original person, and Lord Viṣṇu is His personal expansion. This is the verdict of all Vedic literatures.]

Kṛṣṇa-sama prāya. Now, I have already told you, prāya means He is almost like Kṛṣṇa. Because Kṛṣṇa is cent percent, he is ninety-four percent. Therefore it is said, kṛṣṇa-sama prāya. All these Viṣṇu-mūrti, They are kṛṣṇa-sama prāya, or almost like Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇa aṁśī. The difference is that Kṛṣṇa is the original teṅho aṁśa and this Viṣṇu is plenary expansion. This is the difference between Viṣṇu and Kṛṣṇa.

How it is? Somebody may say, "Oh, Lord Caitanya is devotee of Kṛṣṇa, and you are all devotee of Kṛṣṇa. Therefore you are saying that Kṛṣṇa is the original Personality of Godhead." No. In the Bhagavad-gītā you will find, Kṛṣṇa Himself says, mattaḥ parataraṁ asti..., nānyat asti kiñcid [Bg 7.7]:

[O conqueror of wealth [Arjuna], there is no Truth superior to Me. Everything rests upon Me, as pearls are strung on a thread.]

"There is no more supreme than Me." "All right, He may say personally. He may advertise Himself." But there are many instances in the Vedic literature. Just like in the Brahma-saṁhitā it is said,

dīpārcir eva hi daśāntaram abhyupetya
dīpāyate vivṛta-hetu-samāna-dharmā
yas tādṛg eva hi ca viṣṇutayā vibhāti
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

[Cc Madhya 20.316]

[When the flame of one candle is expanded to another candle and placed in a different position, it burns separately, and its illumination is as powerful as the original candle’s. Similarly, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, expands Himself in different forms as Viṣṇu, who is equally luminous, powerful and opulent. Let me worship that Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda.]

"Govinda, Kṛṣṇa, He is the original, and from Him all other Viṣṇu expansions are emanated." How it is that? Just like this is a lamp, original. Now you can, I mean to say, ignite another lamp, another lamp, another lamp, another lamp, another lamp. Now, all these lamps, they are equally powerful so far the luminous quality is concerned, but you have to accept, "This is original lamp." Similarly, all these Viṣṇu expansions, they are almost like Kṛṣṇa; a little difference, but... Kṛṣṇa, what is that difference? That also we can note. When Kṛṣṇa was here, He was completely..., He manifested Himself as completely free from any rules and regulation. Any rules and regulation. But other incarnation, when They come, They follow the rules and regulation.

Just like Lord Rāmacandra. When He came, He accepted only one wife. Accepted only one wife. And even when that wife was banished... You know that. Sītā. Sītā. He [She] was kidnapped by Rāvaṇa, and Lord Rāma fought with him, killed the whole family, and installed his brother in that kingdom and rescued Sītā and brought home. So He was living with Sītā.

But some of the śūdras, they criticized, "Oh, just see Rāmacandra. He is king. He is very powerful. He is living with His kidnapped wife." Because in India, once a woman goes out of home—still the culture is—you cannot be..., she cannot be accepted any more. She has to live just like prostitute. She has no shelter. But when this, I mean to say, popular opinion was there... But He was king. He has to take the criticism of the public. Just like at the present moment the president, they don't care for public opinion. Irresponsible. They say, "Responsible government." They are most irresponsible.

But formerly, although there was monarchy, they were very much responsible. As soon as there was some criticism from the public, Rāmacandra at once banished Sītā: "Oh, I cannot live with Sītā. Public opinion is against it." Just see. He is following the rules and regulation. His father told Him, "My dear boy, I wish that instead of being enthroned, please go to the forest." "All right, it is your order. I must carry." Just see. He is following the principle. He is ideal... Rāmacandra is ideal king means He has followed the principle of moral codes. And...

But from Kṛṣṇa's behavior, you will find there is no moral code. He is free. At night He is calling girls, "Come on, I'll dance with you." They were coming. From material point of view it is immoral, at least in India. But He is free. Rāmacandra accepted one wife; He accepted sixteen thousand wives.

So Kṛṣṇa, Kṛṣṇa is above everything. No rules and regulation. He cannot do anything wrong. He is not under the jurisdiction of any law. Therefore Kṛṣṇa manifested the full power of the Supreme Lord. And other incarnation, although they came, they came for the time being to perform a certain particular purpose, but they did not manifest the full power of God. Therefore Kṛṣṇa is the Supreme God. Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28].

[All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the original Personality of Godhead. All of them appear on planets whenever there is a disturbance created by the atheists. The Lord incarnates to protect the theists.]

It is confirmed in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam that He is the Supreme Personality, original Personality of Godhead. He is nobody's under control. Even He was not controlled by His supreme lover, Rādhārāṇī. Rādhārāṇī is considered... The gopīs are considered the topmost lover of Kṛṣṇa. But when Kṛṣṇa decided to leave Vṛndāvana, oh, they began to cry. They blocked the way. Kṛṣṇa didn't care; went away. Went away. He didn't care even. So much dear Rādhārāṇī. They become blind, crying, crying, crying, crying, whole life. But Kṛṣṇa never returned. Never returned. He sent His message, He sent His letter, that "I am very sorry, but..." That is God. He is not controlled by anything. Anything. That is Kṛṣṇa. Kṛṣṇas tu bhagavān svayam [SB 1.3.28].


brahmā, śiva-ājñā—kārī bhakta-avatāra
pālanārthe viṣṇu—kṛṣṇera svarūpa-ākāra

[Cc Madhya 20.317]

[The conclusion is that Lord Brahmā and Lord Śiva are simply devotee incarnations who carry out orders. However, Lord Viṣṇu, the maintainer, is the personal feature of Lord Kṛṣṇa.]

Therefore all demigods, including Śiva, Brahmā and everyone, they are only order-carrying servants.

ekale īśvara kṛṣṇa āra saba bhṛtya

[Cc Ādi 5.142]

[Lord Kṛṣṇa alone is the supreme controller, and all others are His servants. They dance as He makes them do so.]

In the Caitanya-caritāmṛta you will find one passage that "Only master is Kṛṣṇa, and everyone—never mind what he is—is servant. Is servant." Everyone is servant. And what to speak of us. We are servant's servant's servant. Therefore anyone who understands this philosophy, that "I am servant's servant's servant's servant, hundred times, million times lower servant," he is a liberated person. And one who thinks that "I am God," he is a dog. He is a dog. And one who thinks, "I am servant, God's servant's servant's servant, million times servant's servant," he is liberated. He is liberated. This is the process.

Gopī bhartuḥ pada-kamalayor dāsa-dāsānudāsaḥ

[Cc Madhya 13.80]

[I am not a brāhmaṇa, I am not a kṣatriya, I am not a vaiśya or a śūdra. Nor am I a brahmacārī, a householder, a vānaprastha or a sannyāsī. I identify Myself only as the servant of the servant of the servant of the lotus feet of Lord Śrī Kṛṣṇa, the maintainer of the gopīs. He is like an ocean of nectar, and He is the cause of universal transcendental bliss. He is always existing with brilliance.’]

Lord Caitanya, He said that "I am not a brāhmaṇa. I am not a Christian. I am not a Hindu. I am not a sannyāsī. I am nothing of this sort." Then what You are? "I am the servant's servant's servant's servant of Kṛṣṇa. That is My identification." And when you identify yourself in that way, you are liberated person. That is Kṛṣṇa consciousness, perfection of Kṛṣṇa consciousness.

Thank you very much. Any question? [end]