Bhagavad-gītā 2.51–55 , New York , 1966-04-06


karma-jaṁ buddhi-yuktā hi
phalaṁ tyaktvā manīṣiṇaḥ
padaṁ gacchanty anāmayam

[The wise, engaged in devotional service, take refuge in the Lord, and free themselves from the cycle of birth and death by renouncing the fruits of action in the material world. In this way they can attain that state beyond all miseries.]

Now, last..., in our last meeting, we were discussing this verse, that karma-jam, every action, every activities that we are engaged in, it has got a reaction. Any activity, it has got reaction. And that reaction is another bondage for me. Now I am engaged in one action, and I am producing another reaction. Now, at the present moment, I am bounded by one kind of activities, and I am producing another kind of activities. Just like in the cinematographic spool, there are hundreds and thousands of pictures. One picture passed, another picture present, and another picture is ahead. The whole picture, when put into the machine, it represents some activities.

So we are bound up by nature's law in such a way... Why nature's law? Even in your state laws, we are bound up by so many laws. So this is our position. This is called conditioned stage of life. There is no freedom. The so-called freedom... We declare that "I belong to the free nation. I am free." These are all simply mental speculation. There is no freedom. So long I am bound up by the conditions of nature, there is no freedom.

Now, here is a chance... Lord Kṛṣṇa says that karma-jaṁ buddhi-yuktā. Now, here is an opportunity for you. In human form of your life, you have got sufficient intelligence, and the Lord Himself is before you to enlighten your intelligence more and more. Here is the book. This book, what is spoken by Lord Kṛṣṇa, and Kṛṣṇa is not different. Because Kṛṣṇa, or the Lord, is on the absolute plane. Don't think that Kṛṣṇa is absent. Kṛṣṇa is present here.

There is a verse in Bhāgavata, tatra tiṣṭhāmi nārada yatra gāyanti mad-bhaktāḥ [Padma Purāna], that "I... My dear Nārada..." Nārada is a great devotee. Perhaps you who are accustomed with Vedic literatures, you have heard the name of Nārada. So Nārada is a great devotee, and the Lord assures him that, "Don't think that I am living in the kingdom of God or I am living in the heart of a great mystic, or somewhere else, somewhere else... People may think. But I am living in that place where My sincere devotees assemble and discuss about Myself."

So here we should always understand that if we sincerely and seriously take up the message of the Bhagavad-gītā as it is, without any, I mean to say, adulteration... Sometimes it is adulterated by... Because Bhagavad-gītā is a very authoritative book, and it is popular all over the world, sometimes people take advantage of this book and present their own theory in a adulterated way. Not to speak of others... I may tell you frankly that even in our country, the greatest, I mean to..., saintly politician, Mahatma Gandhi, he propounded a philosophy of nonviolence. Perhaps you know, every one of you, that he propounded nonviolence, and he wanted to prove nonviolence from Bhagavad-gītā. He has got an annotation of Bhagavad-gītā, and he has tried to prove that Bhagavad-gītā, there is proof, nonviolence.

But actually, Bhagavad-gītā is being spoken in the battlefield, where everyone is prepared to start violence. Simply for a moment, when Arjuna was disturbed in his mind, that "How can I fight with my relatives and friends and sons and grandsons and so, so many things?" Bodily relations. And the Bhagavad-gītā was spoken. So that is a practical thing that Bhagavad-gītā was practically spoken to induce Arjuna to adopt violence. Now, Mahatma Gandhi, his philosophy was nonviolence. How could he prove that Bhagavad-gītā gives evidence of nonviolence? No.

Therefore, anyone, Mahatma Gandhi or anyone who has got his own ulterior motive, to prove it from the topics of Bhagavad-gītā, he must adulterate it. But that is not the process of reading Bhagavad-gītā. Bhagavad-gītā, how to read Bhagavad-gītā, that is stated in the Bhagavad-gītā. When we come to the Fourth Chapter, we'll know. So anyway, apart from the process of... But rest assured, we are speaking here of the Bhagavad-gītā as it is. We are not going to add it, add in it something for fulfilling our own philosophy, our own points of view.

Now here Lord Kṛṣṇa says that if you want to get rid of this entanglement of... What is that entanglement? Now, janma-bandha. Janma-bandha. Oh, it is a great entanglement. People do not take it very seriously. Birth. Birth means, as soon as birth... Only the one word has been used here, janma. Janma means birth. Birth means other things. Birth means death. Birth means old age. Birth means disease. Whenever there is birth, the other things are corollary. They'll follow.

Your birth means... A son is born. Oh, you are very glad, "I have got a son." But if you study it philosophically, no, birth is not... He is not born; death is born. Because the growing of the child means he is dying. It is dying. The dying process. The very day, the very moment the child is born, the dying process begins. So we do not know that it is not birth; it is death. This is called māyā. This is called illusion, that death is born and we are jolly that there is birth of a child. This is called māyā.

So everything, from the beginning of our birth, we are illusioned. Illusioned. And that illusion is so strong that it is very, very difficult to get out of it. Whole thing is illusion. The birth is illusion. This body is an illusion. And the bodily relationship, the country is illusion. The father is illusion. The mother is an illusion. The wife is illusion. The childrens are illusion. Everything illusion. Everything illusion. And we are compact in that illusion. We are thinking that we are very much learned and very much advanced, and so many things we are imagining. But as soon as death comes, the actual fact, the beginning of death, then we forget everything. We can forget our country. We forget our relatives. We forget our wife, children, father, mother—everything gone. You see?

If it is a fact that I am soul, eternal, then it is a fact also that in my previous life I had my country, I had my children, I had my home, I had my father, I had my everything. But can you remember any of these things, what you were in your previous life? Either human..., human-born life or either animal life, you cannot... Death means forgetful. We have forgotten everything.

Actually, there is no death for the soul. Just like you are... At night, you go to sleep. So that is a sort of death. And again you get up in the morning. So death is something like that. Death is sleeping for seven months. That's all. Without any consciousness. For three..., three months without any consciousness. Or, say, seven months. Death means forgetfulness. Just like at sleep, we forget everything: what I am, where I am sleeping, who I am, what is my identity, identification, everything forgotten. Then again, as soon as I rise up in the morning, I remember, "Oh, I am such-and-such officer. I am such-and-such father, such-and-such husband, and I have got to do such-and-such things." Everything remembered. But during your sleep, you forget everything.

Similarly, death means from the time of your leaving this body and entering into the womb of another mother, and so long another body is not developed, you remain unconscious. And as soon as another body is developed within the womb of the mother and the time is up to come out, then again you remember.

So practically there is no death. Death means changing the body. We have already discussed this point. Now... But that janma, that birth, oh, it is stated here that it is a bondage. Janma-bandha. Bandha means bondage. Practically there is similarity in English. It is called bandha, and in English, bond. There is similarity of sound. Janma-bandha. So this janma, so long, so long your mind will be absorbed in the activities of this material world, you are sure to take birth again.

So that activities, by intelligence, have to be purified in such a way that it will not affect you. It will not affect you. That is the tactics. This tactic... So we should be very serious. We should be serious that many, many life, many, many lives we have passed, but there was no opportunity to get out of this tribulation of birth, death, old age and diseases. Now here is a chance. Here is a chance in the human form of life. So every intelligent man should take advantage of it, and you can get assistance from these authorized books of Bhagavad-gītā and Śrīmad-Bhāgavata. And also expert advice, knowledge. So we should not miss this opportunity.

And then the question is, "Suppose my, after this, after quitting this body, the present body, I don't get janma. Then what is happening to me?" It is al... That is also stated here: janma-vi..., janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ padaṁ gacchanty anāmayam. Anāmayam. Āmayam, āmayam means contamination. Āmayam, contamination. So this contaminated life, as soon as we give up this contaminated life, then our promotion is in the uncontaminated atmosphere, anāmayam. Anāmayam. Anāmayam means Vaikuṇṭha. Vaikuṇṭha means where there is no anxiety. I think about this anxiety we explained to you in our last meeting.

So we are..., we are getting promotion. We are getting promotion to a life where there is no birth, no death and no disease, no old age. And that means we come to our normal life. Normally, we want. Nobody wants disease. Nobody wants death. Nobody wants old age. Nobody wants to suffer the suf..., I mean to say, the miseries of birth. Oh, there are great miseries when you are in the womb of the mother, all tightly packed up and in a bag, suffocated bag. We do not know how do we live even. And if we put again into that position, it will be very difficult. You cannot live for a three second.

But by the arrangement of nature, or God, we lived within the womb of our mother for ten months in that position. But we have forgotten. But just imagine in how much trouble I was. That is..., these things are to be thought. That is intelligent thought. Now, here is a chance that you can get rid of these, all these miseries—the miseries of birth, the miseries of death, the miseries of old age and miseries of, I mean to say, diseases.

Now, this... Now we are speaking the synopsis; the Bhagavad-gītā, this Second Chapter is the synopsis what will be elaborately explained. Not very elaborately, but still more clearly it will be explained in later chapters. Now Bhagavad-gītā is the preliminary study of the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. Just like introductory, introductory study. Now, how we can practically get into such activities which will not bound me, I mean to say, in a reaction? That is explained in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, that,

sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmo
yato bhaktir adhokṣaje
ahaituky apratihatā
yayātmā suprasīdati

[SB 1.2.6]

[The supreme occupation [dharma] for all humanity is that by which men can attain to loving devotional service unto the transcendent Lord. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and uninterrupted to completely satisfy the self.]

Ātmā suprasīdati. Ātmā means self. Our present position is that we are not happy. We are always full of anxieties. That is our present position. Now here, just the opposite word is used, that yayā ātmā suprasīdati. If you want to actually, if you want actually to make yourself jolly, full of happiness, then you should search out your occupation in such a way that it will lead you to the devotional service of the Supreme Lord. Sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmaḥ. Para means the highest, or the transcendent.

We are engaged in some..., in some sort of activities. Nobody is free from activities. Even a ant, an ant, it is also engaged in activities. And the elephant. Ant is the most, I mean to..., according to our vision, the ant is very small and the elephant is very big. But everyone, beginning from the ant up to the elephant, so far our experience is concerned... There are other big animals also. We have not seen, but we can see from the description of the scriptures that there are fishes in the ocean which is called timiṅgala. So timiṅgala... You, perhaps you know that fish which is called in Sanskrit timi matsya, or whale fish, very big, sometime hundred feet long. So there are other fishes which is a timiṅgala, that fish swallows up this fish, this hundred-feet-long. Now just imagine what must be the length of that fish's body. You see? So in God's creation there are so many wonderful things. We have not seen all.

But everyone is engaged in some sort of occupation for livelihood. Nobody is silent. Nobody is silent. According to his nature, modes of nature, and position, everyone is busy. Now, the Bhāgavata says that sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmaḥ. Everyone busy, but when one is busy in such a work that leads to devotional service of the Lord, that busy-ness, that occupation, is the supermost. That occupation is the supermost. Sa vai puṁsaṁ paro dharmaḥ. Para means supermost. And that sort of occupation should be without any cause.

Everything is done, everything is done, so far our duties are concerned—there is a cause. I do this because I want this. So there is a cause and effect. But this sort of busy-ness, this sort of occupation which leads you to the devotional service of the Lord, it has no cause. Ahaituki. It has no cause. Why it has no cause? Just like a lover, or, say, lover, beloved, set aside. Just like mother. A mother loves her child. There is no cause. She does not know, "Why I am loving?" Automatically. Automatically, she loves.

Similarly, we have got our relationship with the Supreme Consciousness. We are consciousness. That is accepted. Now, there is supreme consciousness also. Just let us have some estimation what is that supreme consciousness. Now, supreme consciousness... Consciousness is described in the Bhagavad-gītā, yena sarvam idaṁ tatam [Bg 2.17].

[Know that which pervades the entire body is indestructible. No one is able to destroy the imperishable soul.]

The consciousness is distributed throughout your whole body. That we can make an experiment. But this consciousness is not, I mean to..., spread over all the cosmic manifestation. That is also a fact. My consciousness is spread over my body. Your consciousness is spread over your body. I do not know what you are thinking now, and you do not know what I am thinking. Therefore my consciousness, individual; your consciousness, individual. But there is the Supersoul, who knows what you are thinking and what I am thinking, what he is thinking, everyone thinking. That is superconsciousness.

So superconsciousness and individual consciousness. So our relationship, the superconsciousness and the individual consciousness, is eternal. Eternal. They cannot be, I mean to say, separated. Therefore my position is... Just like there is superior one and the inferior one. Inferior one is subordinate to the superior one, and inferior one is to act according to the superior one. Just like it is taught here that Kṛṣṇa is the superconsciousness; He's trying to convince Arjuna that "You act according to My direction, because you are individual consciousness, subordinate to Me, and I am superconsciousness." And in the last phase of Bhagavad-gītā, you'll see that He summarized, Lord Kṛṣṇa summarized, sarva-dharmān parityajya mām ekaṁ śaraṇaṁ vraja [Bg 18.66]:

[Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear.]

"You just surrender unto Me." This is the sum and substance of everything. So therefore the conclusion is that the individual consciousness should surrender to the Supreme Consciousness and act accordingly. That is the position of standing on the conscious plane. That is the position of conscious plane. And Bhagavad..., Śrīmad-Bhāgavata also says that sa vai puṁsāṁ paro dharmaḥ [SB 1.2.6],

[The supreme occupation [dharma] for all humanity is that by which men can attain to loving devotional service unto the transcendent Lord. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and uninterrupted to completely satisfy the self.]

the activities, the occupation, the business, that which leads us to that consciousness, that consciousness, that "I am subordinate to the Supreme Consciousness," and let me act according to the Supreme Consciousness, without any cause, ahaituki, without...

"Why I shall act?" There is no such question. It is automatic. Automatic. Just like a little son and the mother. The little son is automatically subordinate to the mother. Whatever the mother says, the child acts. The mother [child] is completely dependent. Similarly, as soon as we make our consciousness completely engaged in the service of the Supreme Consciousness, that is our liberated position. That is our liberated position. And in that liberated position, whatever we do, there is no reaction. That is transcendental position.

So what Śrī Kṛṣṇa says here? That karma-jam. Karma-jam, that "Every, your any work which you are performing, that is creating some reaction for future enjoyment or suffering. But if you act intelligently, in collaboration with the Supreme Consciousness, then you'll be free from this bondage of birth, death, old age and diseases and, in your next life... This is a training period. This life will be a training period, and as soon as you are fully trained up, then the next result will be that after giving up this body you come to My kingdom." Tyaktvā dehaṁ punar janma naiti mām eti kaunteya [Bg 4.9].

[One who knows the transcendental nature of My appearance and activities does not, upon leaving the body, take his birth again in this material world, but attains My eternal abode, O Arjuna.]

So this is the whole process.

So that sort of business which will lead us to the position when we shall be dovetailed, we shall be dovetailed with the Supreme Consciousness... Just like this morning I was giving an example: Just like one motorcar is passing on in sixty miles' speed, and a cyclist also going on. If the cyclist catches the motorcar, he can also proceed with the same speed, sixty miles' speed, without even pedaling. Similarly, if we can join our consciousness with the Supreme Consciousness, then our whole life becomes successful. That is the point.

Now, how to join it? The religion. This whole worldly religious process is the same, I mean to say, experimental or formulas or rituals so that one may become dovetailed with the Supreme Consciousness. Every religion. But if we become attracted by the rituals only or formula, and quarrel on that point, that "Oh, my Bible says like this," or I say, "No, my Vedas says like this," and the Muslim, Musselman, says that "No, my Koran says like this. Your is not right," then we become attached to the rituals only. We forget. We forget the right point. The right point is... The whole process is how to dovetail, how to dovetail myself with the Supreme Consciousness. Going to the church, it is not a formality, but real thing is to elevate myself gradually, to dovetail myself to the supreme consciousness of God. That is the real formula. So Kṛṣṇa says that karma-jaṁ buddhi-yuktā hi. When we are engaged in such a way, then we get rid of this janma-bandha-vinirmuktāḥ. And next śloka is, yadā te moha-kalilaṁ, gantāsi nirvedaṁ śrotavyasya śrutasya ca [Bg 9.52]:

[When your intelligence has passed out of the dense forest of delusion, you shall become indifferent to all that has been heard and all that is to be heard.]

"When you are elevated to that platform, dovetailing yourself with the supreme consciousness, then there is no more requisition for understanding the scriptures or the rituals or the religious process. You have..., you are transcendental to that, all these paraphernalia." Yadā te moha-kalilaṁ buddhir vyatitariṣyati: "When your consciousness is dovetailed in cooperation with the supreme consciousness, then you are transcendental to the position of this illusory stage." Yadā te moha-kalilaṁ buddhir vyatitariṣyati, tadā gantāsi nirvedam: "At that time you become callous to all these rituals, because your position and your activities are fixed up." Śrotavyasya śrutasya ca: "Whatever you have heard and whatever you have to hear in the future, all finishes."

Therefore the whole thing depends how to adjust ourself to that supreme consciousness. And if we cannot... The next verse in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavata says that,

dharmaḥ svanuṣṭhitaḥ puṁsāṁ
viṣvaksena-kathāsu yaḥ
notpādayed ratiṁ yadi
śrama eva hi kevalam

[SB 1.2.8]

[The occupational activities a man performs according to his own position are only so much useless labor if they do not provoke attraction for the message of the Personality of Godhead.]

Śrama eva hi kevalam. If by performing all religious rituals very nicely and very perfectly, if we fail to dovetail ourself with the supreme consciousness, then all our labor for performing these rituals and religious performances, they become only labor of love. It has not produced anything substantial, anything substantial.

Nanu niṣkarmāṇi karmāṇi kurvata me.[?] This is the question of Arjuna, that "When I shall be self-realized by doing work without any fruitive result, so what will be the position of my self-realization?" That, in that, in answer to that question, that "When you shall be callous to all religious rituals and scriptural injunction and simply you shall be engaged in the..., in the dovetailing business of..., with the superconsciousness, then you are in transcendental position of all religious rituals and all conception of religious ceremonies and everything." That's it. But in the beginning you require all these things. Therefore Bhāgavata says that that sort of religion which elevates you to that consciousness, that is the supreme type of religion.

śruti-vipratipannā te
yadā sthāsyati niścalā
samādhāv acalā buddhis
tadā yogam avāpsyasi

[When your mind is no longer disturbed by the flowery language of the Vedas, and when it remains fixed in the trance of self-realization, then you will have attained the Divine consciousness.]

This is the position of yoga. Yoga, samādhi..., samādhi means to be always in the, situated in the superconsciousness, situated in the business of dovetailing with the superconsciousness. That is called samādhi, Bhagavad-gītā. Śruti-vipratipannā te yadā sthāsyati niścalā. You are not deviated even by hearing so many other things. If you are not deviated, then that position is called samādhi, and that position is the highest position of your life.

Now, Kṛṣṇa is being questioned by Arjuna that "What are the symptoms of such person who is already in that position of dovetailing the individual consciousness with the superconsciousness? What are the symptoms?"

arjuna uvāca
sthita-prajñasya kā bhāṣā
samādhi-sthasya keśava
sthita-dhīḥ kiṁ prabhāṣeta
kim āsīta vrajeta kim

[Arjuna said: What are the symptoms of one whose consciousness is thus merged in Transcendence? How does he speak, and what is his language? How does he sit, and how does he walk?]

Now Arjuna says, "My dear Kṛṣṇa, will You kindly explain what are the language? How a person who is already in transcendental position, how does he speak? How does he act? And how does he live? How does he move?" All these things. Because in our present life, we have to act. Activity is not stopped. Simply the activities are to be dovetailed in a certain way that we can join ourself with the superconsciousness. Now, when such thing is performed, when actually one is dovetailed with the superconsciousness, what are the symptoms of his life, this is being questioned by Arjuna. And Lord Kṛṣṇa, śrī bhagavān uvāca...

You will find always in Bhagavad-gītā that although Kṛṣṇa is speaking the words, "bhagavān" is used. Because Kṛṣṇa is, Kṛṣṇa... The very word means the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Just like we have recited the śloka,

īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ
anādir ādir govindaḥ

[Bs 5.1]

[Kṛṣṇa who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes.]

So Kṛṣṇa and Bhagavān is identical. So here you'll see, in the Bhagavad-gītā, instead of mentioning that "Kṛṣṇa said"—when Arjuna speaking, it is clearly said that "Arjuna said"—but when Kṛṣṇa is speaking, it is said śrī bhagavān uvāca: "The Personality of God is speaking."

Now Śrī Kṛṣṇa answering the symptoms of the self-realized personality. So what is that? First symptom is,

prajahāti yadā kāmān
sarvān pārtha mano-gatān
ātmany evātmanā tuṣṭaḥ
sthita-prajñas tadocyate

[The Blessed Lord said: O Pārtha, when a man gives up all varieties of sense desire which arise from mental concoction, and when his mind finds satisfaction in the self alone, then he is said to be in pure transcendental consciousness.]

The first principle, or the first symptom of a self-realized soul, is that he does not make any plan for his prosperity. Because we are always busy in making plans: "Now, after this, we shall do this. After this, we shall do this." But one who is self-realized, he has no plan. Because he has dovetailed himself with the supreme consciousness, so for himself he has nothing to do. He simply depends. He simply depends on the Supreme Consciousness. It is very elevated stage, you see, that completely he surrenders himself and... But we should not be, I mean, imitating this. This is, of course, spoken for the highest stage. But we should... Without coming to that highest stage, we should not imitate.

When Kṛṣṇa is asked, He must give the proper answer; so He's giving the answers that prajahāti yadā kāmān sarvān pārtha mano-gatān. Because our mind is the factory of creating so many plans. So many plans. But one who has dovetailed himself, he has nothing to do for plan-making, because everything is taken up by the Supreme Consciousness. He has simply to follow. Therefore he has, for himself, he has no plan. He has no plan. This is the first symptom.

But without reaching that stage, we should not pose ourself that "I have nothing to think. I have nothing to think of future, past or everything." No. Gradually, we shall come to the stage when there will be everything done automatically. But in, in the present moment, in the present moment, we should give up plan-making, but we shall, we shall have to take up the plan of the Supreme Consciousness. Personally, we shall not make any plan. But we have to receive the plans from the Supreme Consciousness. That will be our position.

Just like an apprentice: he is working, he is working in the apprenticeship; he should not present his own plan. But he has to take plans of work from his superior. Then he will learn. And when he's accustomed, when he's elevated, then he'll be able to make independent plans. Although not independent always, but even if he is higher officer, everyone has to consult the higher authorities. Similarly, this means that I shall not independently make any plan, but I must accept the standard plan which is coming directly from the Supreme Consciousness through a channel. Through a channel. You have to seek that channel.

So that channel is called... You'll find it in the Bhagavad-gītā, in the Fourth Chapter, paramparā. Paramparā, disciplic succession. Disciplic succession. The words, the plans and the instruction which is coming directly from Kṛṣṇa, that thing we have to accept. We shall not make any our own plan. That is the way of making progress.

Now, this disciplic succession, as we have accepted, this disciplic succession comes from Kṛṣṇa. Just like Kṛṣṇa is instructing Arjuna. Kṛṣṇa is instructing Arjuna, and we have to understand how Arjuna has understood Kṛṣṇa. And if we follow the understanding of Arjuna, then we are following the paramparā system, or the disciplic succession. That is the process.

Now, in the Tenth Chapter, in the Tenth Chapter you'll find that how Kṛṣṇa is understood by Arjuna. After hearing not all—at least seventy-five percent of the instruction of Bhagavad-gītāthe estimation of Arjuna is stated in the Tenth Chapter. He says that...

[aside:] I think I may... [long pause, pages rustling] Yes.

Arjuna, after understanding Kṛṣṇa, after His instruction, he says that..., automatically he says,

paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma
pavitraṁ paramaṁ bhavān
puruṣaṁ śāśvataṁ divyam
ādi-devam ajaṁ vibhum

[Bg 10.12]

[Arjuna said: You are the Supreme Brahman, the ultimate, the supreme abode and purifier, the Absolute Truth and the eternal divine person. You are the primal God, transcendental and original, and You are the unborn and all-pervading beauty. All the great sages such as Nārada, Asita, Devala, and Vyāsa proclaim this of You, and now You Yourself are declaring it to me.]

"Kṛṣṇa, now I understand it that you are Paraṁ Brahman." Paraṁ Brahman means the..., the Supreme, supreme spiritual identity. Every one of us is Brahman. You are Brahman. I am Brahman. Every living entity is Brahman, because he's not this matter, he's spirit soul. Whoever is spirit soul, he is called Brahman. But Kṛṣṇa is addressed here, Paraṁ Brahma. Just like we recited that śloka, the verse, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ. Īśvara: every one of us, īśvara. The translation of īśvara word is "god."

Now, God, God means..., īśvara means controller. So every one of us is controller, but Kṛṣṇa is the supreme controller. He has no controller. I am controller, I am Brahman, but at the same time I have got superior controller over me. But Kṛṣṇa is called Paraṁ Brahma, or the īśvara parama, the supreme controller, because He has no controller over Him. That is the acceptance of Arjuna.

This is the mode of studying Bhagavad-gītā. If we don't interpret in our own way, if we really want to study Bhagavad-gītā, then here is the confirmation by Arjuna how he understands Kṛṣṇa after hearing Bhagavad-gītā. Not only that, he also... In the Eleventh Chapter you'll find that Arjuna will request Kṛṣṇa to show him His gigantic universal form. Because he, Arjuna, as he is, he accepted Kṛṣṇa that He's God undoubtedly. But in future people may think that Kṛṣṇa and Arjuna were two friends, so out of friendly appreciation, Arjuna might have accepted Kṛṣṇa as the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but what is the evidence to us? Now, here, when Kṛṣṇa..., Arjuna requested that "Kṛṣṇa, You kindly show me the gigantic form, the gigantic universal form," He showed him. That is also described.

So the idea is that imitation God, there may be so many. Nowadays it has become a fashion—not in your country; at least in India, it has become a fashion—that everyone is coming out and he declares himself, "I am God. I am God," as if the God has become a very cheap thing, and it can be had in the market, wherever you go. You see? That is not the thing. God is not so cheap thing. You see? God is not so cheap thing.

The description of God is, in the Brahma-saṁhitā is given,

yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya
jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ
viṣṇur mahān sa iha yasya kalā-viśeṣo
govindam ādi-puruṣaṁ tam ahaṁ bhajāmi

[Bs 5.48]

[Brahmā and other lords of the mundane worlds, appearing from the pores of hair of Mahā-Viṣṇu, remain alive as long as the duration of one exhalation of the latter [Mahā-Viṣṇu]. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda of whose subjective personality Mahā-Viṣṇu is the portion of portion.]

The God... This material creation... We have got this information from authoritative scripture. This material creation, how it is being done? It is being done that the Supreme Lord in His form of Mahā-Viṣṇu, He's lying on the Causal Ocean, and in a sleeping mood, and with the breathing of His nostril, so many universes are being born as seed. And when He's taking the breathing, inhaling, the whole thing is going into Him. So such is the position of God, that by His breathing, all the universes are coming, and by His breathing... So the existence of this universe means within His breathing period, within the breathing period of the Mahā-Viṣṇu.

So that Mahā-Viṣṇu is described, yasyaika-niśvasita-kālam athāvalambya jīvanti loma-vilajā jagad-aṇḍa-nāthāḥ viṣṇur mahān sa iha yasya kalā-viśeṣaḥ. That Mahā-Viṣṇu is also plenary portion of Kṛṣṇa, Govinda. That Mahā-Viṣṇu is also not the original. The original Personality of Godhead is Kṛṣṇa.

So this is a great science, what Kṛṣṇa is. Kṛṣṇa science. It is simply a synopsis. Bhagavad-gītā is only a synopsis of the science of God, and it is more explicitly given in the Śrīmad-Bhāgavata. But after all, it is a great science. And if we study it very seriously, then we can understand. We should not take so cheaply that "Here is a God, here is a God, here is a God." No, no. God is not so cheap. God is one, and He is great. "God is great," as in your English language it is said, and nobody can be greater than Him or equal to Him. That is the position of God.

Now here, Arjuna, he accepts Kṛṣṇa and he says that "You are Paraṁ Brahman." Paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma [Bg 10.12].

[Arjuna said: You are the Supreme Brahman, the ultimate, the supreme abode and purifier, the Absolute Truth and the eternal divine person. You are the primal God, transcendental and original, and You are the unborn and all-pervading beauty. All the great sages such as Nārada, Asita, Devala, and Vyāsa proclaim this of You, and now You Yourself are declaring it to me.]

Dhāma means in which everything rests. We are resting; everything is resting. Just like... This is scientific and practical, you know, that the innumerable planets that the..., that you can see at night as, I mean to say, luminaries, stars in the sky, each and every one of them, more or less, they are all different kinds of planets. But do you know how they are floating in the space? They are floating on the sunshine, on the sun rays. They are floating. That you can see. Similarly, the sunshine is the imitation of the brahma-jyoti that is coming out of the body of the Supreme Lord. So everything is resting on the shine of the Supreme Lord. Therefore He is called paraṁ dhāma. Paraṁ dhāma means "everything resting on You."

Paraṁ brahma paraṁ dhāma pavitram [Bg 10.12]. Pavitram. Pavitram means uncontaminated. Because we, although we are Brahman, now we are contaminated by this material body. But the Lord has no contaminated body of this material existence. We have already noted, īśvaraḥ paramaḥ kṛṣṇaḥ sac-cid-ānanda... Sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ. Sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ means His body is full—full of bliss, full of knowledge, and it is eternal. That is completely distinct from this body.

So when there is description of the Lord that He is formless, He is formless means He is not of this form. He has got a sac-cid-ānanda-vigrahaḥ [Bs 5.1],

[Kṛṣṇa who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes.]

a different element. Therefore He's called pavitra. And paramaṁ bhavān: "You are the Supreme Original." Puruṣaṁ śāśvataṁ divyam ādi-devam ajaṁ vibhum. So "You are Puruṣa." Puruṣa means enjoyer. "In the Vedic literature, about Yourself...," āhus tvām ṛṣayaḥ sarve, "all the great sages accept You, the Supreme Lord." Āhus tvām ṛṣayaḥ sarve devarṣir nāradaḥ [Bg 10.13].

[Arjuna said: You are the Supreme Brahman, the ultimate, the supreme abode and purifier, the Absolute Truth and the eternal divine person. You are the primal God, transcendental and original, and You are the unborn and all-pervading beauty. All the great sages such as Nārada, Asita, Devala, and Vyāsa proclaim this of You, and now You Yourself are declaring it to me.]

Devarṣir nārada. I have already spoken to you about Nārada. He has also accepted Him. That means authorities. He's quoting authorities. Not that "I am personally accepting you as such, but there are many authorities. Many authorities."

So we have to understand about the science of God from the extraordinary activities and confirmed by the authorities, accepted by the revealed scriptures. Then we have to accept. You see? Not blindly. So Arjuna is giving such evidences. You see? Asito devalo vyāsaḥ svayaṁ caiva bravīṣi me: "You are accepted by such authorities like that, and I have the opportunity that I hear all this from You directly. I am fortunate enough that I am become Your..., I am related in friendship with You, and I am hearing."

So here is the evidence. Now, if you want to study Bhagavad-gītā, then you have to accept all these, this statement of Arjuna. Because Bhagavad-gītā was explained directly to Arjuna, and if you don't accept the appreciation of the direct person who heard Bhagavad-gītā, then whom do we believe? Suppose I have heard something directly from one person. So what I am saying, another person who has no direct relation, he's also saying. Whom do you believe? You have to believe the person who has directly heard. So here there is no doubt about it, that Arjuna directly heard Kṛṣṇa, and his appreciations are recorded here.

So therefore, if we want to study Bhagavad-gītā, then we have to accept the appreciation of the direct hearer, Arjuna. If we do that, then we can get the right thing. But if we change it for our ulterior motive, as some..., so many annotators are doing in the case of Bhagavad-gītā, then we shall not be able to understand what is Bhagavad-gītā.

All right. Let us have some question if you... [end]